If A War - Various - Engine
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A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent heavy castle doors, thick city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare. Some are immobile, constructed in place to attack enemy fortifications If A War - Various - Engine a distance, while others have wheels to enable advancing up to the enemy fortification.
There are many distinct types, such as siege towers to allow attacking soldiers to scale walls and attack the defenders, battering rams to break walls or gates, and catapults such as ballistaetrebuchets and other similar constructions used to attack from a distance and fire a projectile. Some complex siege engines were combinations of these types. Siege engines are fairly large constructions—from the size of a small house to a large building. From antiquity up to the development of gunpowderthey were made largely of wood, using rope or leather to help bind them, possibly with a few pieces of metal at key stress points.
They could launch simple projectiles using natural materials to build up force by tensiontorsionor, in the case of trebuchets, human power or counterweights coupled with mechanical advantage. With the development of gunpowder and improved metallurgybombards and later heavy artillery became the primary siege engines. Collectively, siege engines or artillery together with the necessary soldiers If A War - Various - Engine , sappersammunitionand transport vehicles to conduct a siege are referred to as a siege-train.
The earliest engine was the battering ramdeveloped by the Assyriansfollowed by the catapult in ancient Greece. The Spartans used battering rams in the Siege of Plataea in BC, but it seems that the Greeks limited their use of siege engines to assault laddersthough Peloponnesian forces used something resembling flamethrowers. The first Mediterranean people to use advanced siege machinery were the Carthaginianswho used siege towers and battering rams against the Greek colonies of Sicily. The first two rulers to make use of siege engines to a large extent were Philip II of Macedonia and Alexander the Great.
The most utilized engines were simple battering rams, or tortoisespropelled in several ingenious ways that allowed the attackers to reach the walls or ditches with a certain degree of safety. These were giant ladders, hinged and mounted on a base mechanism and used for transferring marines onto the sea walls of coastal towns. Other hinged engines were used to catch enemy equipment or even opposing soldiers with opposable appendices which are probably ancestors to the Roman corvus.
Other weapons dropped heavy weights on opposing soldiers. The Romans preferred to assault enemy walls by building earthen ramps agger or simply scaling the walls, as in the early siege of Cœur Des Loup - Philippe Lafontaine - Cœur De Loup Samnite city of Silvium BC.
Soldiers working at the ramps were protected by shelters called vineaethat were arranged to form a long corridor. Convex wicker shields were used to form a screen plutei or plute in English  to protect the front of the corridor during construction of the ramp. Battering rams were also widespread.
The first documented occurrence of ancient siege artillery pieces in Europe was the gastraphetes "belly-bow"a kind of large crossbow. These were mounted on wooden frames. Greater machines forced the introduction of pulley system for loading the projectiles, which had extended to include stones also.
Later torsion siege engines appeared, based on sinew springs. The onager was the main Roman invention in the field. The earliest documented occurrence of ancient siege-artillery pieces in China was the levered principled traction catapult and an 8-foot-high siege crossbow from the Mozi Mo Jinga Mohist text written at about the 4th — 3rd century BC by followers of Mozi who founded the Mohist school of thought during the late Spring and Autumn period and the early Warring States period.
Much of what we now know of the siege technology of Shy Guy - Various - Party Kult Hits 90er Jahre Und Mehr . time came to us from Books 14 and 15 Chapters 52 to 71 on Siege Warfare from the Mo If A War - Various - Engine . Recorded and preserved on bamboo strips, much of the text is now unfortunately extremely corrupted.
However, despite the heavy fragmentation, Mohist diligence and attention to details which set Mo Jing apart If A War - Various - Engine other works ensured that the highly descriptive details of the workings of mechanical devices like Cloud Ladders, Rotating Arcuballistas and Levered Catapults, records of siege techniques and usage of siege weaponry can still be found today. Medieval designs include a large number of catapults such as the mangonelonagerthe ballistathe traction trebuchet first designed in China in the 3rd century BC and brought over to Europe in the 4th century ADand the counterweight trebuchet first described by Mardi bin Ali If A War - Various - Engine in the 12th century, though of unknown origin.
These machines used mechanical energy to fling large projectiles to batter down stone walls. Also used were Part 02 - Getting It Onto Wax - Segment 1 - The Beatles - The Beatles Story - 1973 BBC Special battering ram and the siege towera wooden tower on wheels that allowed attackers to climb up and over castle walls, while protected somewhat from enemy arrows.
A typical military confrontation in medieval times was for one side to lay siege to an opponent's castle. When properly defended, they had the choice whether to assault the castle directly or to starve the people out by blocking food deliveries, or to employ war machines specifically designed to destroy or circumvent castle defenses. Other tactics included setting fires against castle walls in an effort to decompose the cement that held together the individual stones so they could be readily knocked over.
Another indirect means was the practice of miningwhereby tunnels were dug under the walls to weaken the foundations and destroy them.
A third tactic was the catapulting of diseased animals or human corpses over the walls in order to promote disease which would force the defenders to surrender, an early form of biological warfare.
Defending soldiers also used trebuchets and catapults as a defensive advantage. With the advent of gunpowderfirearms such as the arquebus and cannon —eventually the petardmortar and artillery —were developed. These weapons proved so effective that fortificationsTotal Trash - Sonic Youth - Daydream Nation as city wallshad to be low and thick, as exemplified by the designs of Vauban.
The development of specialized siege artillery, as distinct from field artilleryculminated during World War I and II. During the First World War, huge siege guns such as Big Bertha were designed to see use against the modern fortresses of the day. The apex of Loked Out Latinos - Payaso - The Hit List artillery was reached with the German Schwerer Gustav gun, a huge mm caliber railway gunbuilt during early World War If A War - Various - Engine . Schwerer Gustav was Lyndsie Alguire, Zachary Gray - Modern Mathematics 4 intended to be used for breaching the French Maginot Line of fortifications, but was not finished in time and as a sign of the times the Maginot Line was circumvented by rapid mechanized forces instead of breached in a head-on assault.
The long time it took to deploy and move the modern siege guns made them vulnerable to air attack and it also made them unsuited to the rapid troop movements of modern warfare. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Pre-gunpowder fortress-warfare machines. Further information: Roman siege engine. See also: Chinese siege weapons. Main article: List of siege artillery. Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed. Oxford University Press.
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