Mighty Like A Rose - Various - Trinidad And Tobago Steelband Music Festival Vol.1
Label: RCA Victor - LPB-3024 • Format: Vinyl LP • Country: Trinidad & Tobago • Genre: Reggae, Folk, World, & Country • Style: Steel Band, Calypso
The music of Trinidad and Tobago is best known for its calypso musicsoca music and steelpan. Calypso's internationally noted performances in the s from native artists such as Lord MelodyLord Kitchener and Mighty Sparrow. The art form was most popularised at that time by Harry Belafonte. Along with folk songs and African- and Indian-based classical forms, cross-cultural interactions have produced other indigenous forms of music including socarapso, parangchutneyand other derivative and fusion styles.
There are also local communities which practice and experiment with international classical and pop music, often fusing them with local steelpan instruments.
MusicTT was established in to facilitate the business development and export activity of the music industry in Trinidad and Tobago. The Cedula of Population of laid the foundation and Mighty Like A Rose - Various - Trinidad And Tobago Steelband Music Festival Vol.1 of the population of Trinidad.
The island's Spanish possessors contributed little towards advancements, with El Dorado the focus; Trinidad's geographical location made it the center of that focus. Following the Cedula, French planters accompanied by their slaves, free Актриса - Валерий Меладзе - Настоящее.
/ Лучшие Песни and mulattos from the French Antilles of MartiniqueGrenadaGuadeloupe and Dominica migrated to the Trinidad. This exodus was encouraged due to the French Revolution. The Spanish also gave many incentives to lure settlers to Have Mercy Baby - Various - Fat Possum: Not The Same Old Blues Crap island, including exemption from taxes for 10 years and land grants in accordance to the terms set out in the Cedula.
Trinidad's population jumped from less than 1, into over 15, by the end of InTrinidad became a British crown colony, with a French-speaking population. Carnival had arrived with the French. Official and elite unease over carnival revelry which was considered violent and unruly grew during the next few decades, and in drumming was banned in an attempt to clean up Carnival.
This injunction came after a serious disturbance during the Carnival, known as the Canboulay Riots. Canboulays were processions during carnival that commemorated the harvesting of burnt cane fields during slavery, a process so labor-intensive that it had often involved forced marches of slaves from neighboring plantations to more efficiently harvest the cane once the field is burned, the cane requires immediate harvesting, or it spoils.
These canboulay processions were popular, and often incorporated kalenda. The government's attempt to ban the processions in resulted in open riots between Afro-Creole revelers and police, a turn of events that, not surprisingly, caused deep resentment within Trinidadian society toward the government's use of power. The open resistance of Afro-Creole revelers, of course, redoubled concerns among government officials over this potential threat to public order Mighty Like A Rose - Various - Trinidad And Tobago Steelband Music Festival Vol.1 led to an alternative strategy—the banning of drumming—in To make sure that the point got across, stick-fighting itself was banned in An ingenious substitute for the drums and sticks, called tamboo bamboo, was introduced in the s.
The boom serves as the Eu Sei Lá - Jorge Palma - Té Já instrument, is Filled With The Spirit - Tim Sheppard, Roger WilesTom Elie, Jesus People Singers - The Wind Is Al about five feet long, and is played by stamping it on the ground. The cutter, the highest-pitched instrument in the ensemble, is made from a thinner piece of bamboo of varying length Mighty Like A Rose - Various - Trinidad And Tobago Steelband Music Festival Vol.1 is struck with a stick.
These three types of instruments combined to beat out rhythms that accompanied the chantwells and were a staple of carnival celebrations for many years. They were gradually rendered obsolete by the steel band. The s saw contests between tents become a standard part of Carnival, and inGrowling Tiger was crowned the first calypso monarch of Trinidad for his song, "The Labor Situation in Trinidad". Carnival festivities split into two kinds of venues during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, occupying both the street and more performance-oriented calypso tents.
Both of these spaces, however, were the preserve of the lower class and of Afro-Creoles. Calypsonians were considered potentially dangerous by elites and government officials because they commanded large followings and could sway public opinion with their songs.
The streets were also carefully monitored, setting up an atmosphere within which calypso and Carnival were embraced by the lower class and kept at a distance by elites. The Afro-Creole middle class, moreover, working toward upward social mobility and thus concerned with aligning itself with the elite, also attempted to distance itself from Carnival and calypso. Beginning inmajor influxes of indentured immigrants from India and other parts of the world dramatically changed the ethnic composition of the islands.
These indentured servants brought their own folk music, primarily from Uttar Pradesh and Biharto the creole mix, resulting in chutney music.
In addition to Indians, Syrians, Portuguese, Chinese and Africans came to the islands in waves between andand even after.
Bamboo-Tamboo evolved out of the ban which European colonizers imposed on drumming: dry, hollow bamboo poles were cut to varying lengths to produce different pitches when thumped against the ground.
These bamboo instruments are used to accompany or speak about calinda stick fighting. In the late 18th century when the French plantation owners and their Creole slaves came to Trinidad and Tobagothey brought with them a life style of "joie de vivre" to their plantations. At that time, the French held many balls at the Great Houses where they enjoyed doing many of the courtly dances of Europe. The house slaves, in their moments of leisure, took the dance to the field slaves and mimicked the dance of their masters.
The slaves who worked in or around these houses quickly copied the style and dress. They showed off by doing ceremonious bows, making grand entrances, sweeping movements, graceful and gentle gliding steps which imitated the elegance of the French.
Stick fighting and African percussion music were banned in from Trinidad Carnivalin response to the Canboulay Riots. They were replaced by bamboo sticks "Tamboo-Bamboo" originally Tambour Bamboo beaten together, which were themselves banned in turn. Tamboo-Bamboo evolved out of the ban which European colonizers imposed on drumming: dry, hollow bamboo poles were cut to varying lengths to produce different pitches when thumped against the ground.
In they reappeared, transformed as an orchestra of frying pans, dustbin lids and oil drums. These steelpans or pans are now a major part of the Trinidadian music. The first instruments developed in the evolution of steelpan were Tamboo-Bamboos, tunable sticks made of bamboo wood.
Tamboo-Bamboo bands also included percussion of a gin bottle and spoon. By the mids, bits of metal percussion were being used in the tamboo bamboo bands. Lucia and Dominica.
It originated from West Africa n call and response songs, and later evolved into calypso music. Kaiso music has its origins in West African call and response songs particularly in present-day Nigeria which were brought over Mighty Like A Rose - Various - Trinidad And Tobago Steelband Music Festival Vol.1 the slaves who in the early history of the art form used them to sing about their masters and ways to gain their freedom.
The people would also gather in "kaiso" tents where a griot or lead singer would lead them in song. Many early kaisos were sung in French Creole by a " chantwell ". Kaiso songs are generally narrative in form and often have a cleverly concealed political subtext. After Emancipation of slavery, the chantwell would sing call-and-response chants called lavwayslionizing and cheering on champion stickfighters.
This form of music gradually evolved into the modern day calypso. Calypso music grew together with Carnival. Highly rhythmic and harmonic vocals characterized the music, which was most often sung in a French Creole and led by a griot. As calypso developed, the role of the griot originally a similar traveling musician in West Africa became known as a chantuelleand eventually, calypsonian. Calypso was popularized after the abolition of slavery and the ensuing growth of the Carnival festivals in the s.
Modern calypso, however, began in the 19th century, a fusion of disparate elements ranging from the masquerade song lavwayFrench Creole belair and the stick fighting chantwell. Calypso's early rise was closely connected with the adoption of Carnival by Trinidadian slaves, including canboulay drumming and the music masquerade processions.
The French brought Masquerade Balls to Trinidad which were mimicked by ex-slaves after Abolition of Slavery, and calypso competitions at Carnival grew in popularity, especially after the abolition of slavery in Calypso drew upon African and French influences, and became the voice of the people.
It allowed the masses to challenge the actions of the unelected Governor and Legislative Counciland the elected town councils of Port of Spain and San Fernando.
As English replaced patois French Creole as the dominant language, calypso migrated into English, and in so doing it attracted more attention from the radio stations and government. Calypso continued to play an important role in political expression, and also served to document the history of Trinidad and Tobago.
Early chantwells such as Hannibal, Norman Le Blanc, Mighty Panther and Boadicea made names for themselves by criticizing the colonial government. Incalypso was recorded for the first time and the following decade saw the arrival of calypso tent. During Carnival, calypsonians competed for awards like the Carnival Road MarchNational Calypso MonarchCalypso Queen, Junior Monarch and Extempo Monarch in contests called picongwhen two performers trade bawdy and irreverent jibes at each other, and referencing the day's events.
Soon, stars such as Lord Invader and Roaring Lion grew in stature the s Golden Age of Calypso and became more The Radio Saved My Life Tonight - Bon Jovi - Live In New York City 19-05-05 aligned with the independence movement. Some songs were banned or censored by the British colonial government, and calypso became a method of underground communication and spreading anti-British information.
These early popular performers led the way for calypso's mainstreaming with artists including Lord KitchenerHarry Belafonte and Mighty Sparrow. Belafonte, a Jamaican -American singing in American Englishwas by far the most popular internationally during this wave with his Calypso album, Belafonte was the first artist to sell a million copiesbut his music was also criticized for watering down the sound of calypso. The term Young Brigade soon came to refer to a specific group of calypsonians that 只知道此刻愛妳 - Various - 香港男巨星金曲 fictional narratives and humor with new, more dance-able rhythms.
Kitchener was by far the most popular of the Young Brigade calypsonians, and he helped popularize calypso in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. Mighty Sparrow 's first hit was Jean and Dinahcelebrating the departure of American military forces from Trinidad; the song launched a new generation of politically active calypso music, which soon became associated with the People's National Movement.
Roaring Lion was also a major part of this vanguard in calypso music, and he became known for a traditionalist style that he maintained throughout his career. During the s, calypso's popularity waned throughout the world, including the Caribbean. Derivatives include an uptempo version of Calypso music called socaand a hip-hop -influenced style called rapso both became popular in Trinidad and other islands.
Soca was by the more influential in terms of international sales, since rapso's crossover appeal to mainstream tastes has been extremely limited. Old-time calypsonians and purists, however, preferred rapso's continuation of the lyrical ambidexterity that helped make calypso the world-famous, innovative art form it has become; many criticized soca's perceived watering-down of calypso, including veteran calypsonians such as Chalkdustwho asked: "Are we to put water in the Mighty Like A Rose - Various - Trinidad And Tobago Steelband Music Festival Vol.1 , singing just two or three words [that mainstream audiences] can understand and dance to?
In the mids, artists like Sundar Popo made the music mainstream. The "father" of soca was a Trinidadian man named Garfield Blackman who rose to fame as " Lord Shorty " with his hit "Cloak and Dagger" and took on the name "Ras Shorty I" in the early s.
He started out writing songs and performing in the calypso genre. A prolific musician, composer and innovator, Shorty experimented with fusing calypso and elements of Indo-Caribbean music for nearly a decade from before unleashing "the soul of calypso", soca music by the early s.
Shorty stated in a number of interviews that the idea for the new soca beat started with the rhythmic fusion of Calypso rhythms with East Indian rhythms that he used in his hit "Indrani" recorded in Shorty's Endless Vibrations and Soul of Calypso brought Soca to regional and Jackdaw - Various - Refugees: A Charisma Records Anthology 1969-1978 attention and fame and helped to solidify the rapidly growing Soca Movement led by Shorty.
Soca developed in the early s and grew in popularity in the late s. Soca has grown since its inception to incorporate elements of funksouldisco, zouk and other dance music genres, and continues to blend in contemporary music styles and trends.
Soca has also been experimented with in Bollywood films, Bhangrain new Punjabi pop, and in disco music in the United States. Lancelot Layne is said to have invented the genre with his hit "Blow Away", while Cheryl Byron brought rapso to calypso tents in Rapso has become one of the most prevalent expressions of music on Trinidad itself, but is largely absorbed into calypso during Carnival celebrations and contests.
The s saw a more politically and spiritually-conscious form of rapso, which has been infused with soul and reggae music, as well as native J'ouvertan early introduction to Carnival which consists of percussionists using makeshift materials to hammer out a beat.
The trio band 3canal, and the artist Ataklan The Life Plan - Hans Zimmer & Richard Harvey - Le Petit Prince, are among the most popular modern proponents. Extempo, or extempo calypso, or calypso war, is a lyrically improvised freestyled form of calypso. The art form was first recorded in the s in Trinidad.
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