Orange Juice - The Orange Juice
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Orange juice is a liquid extract of the orange tree fruit, produced by squeezing or reaming oranges. It comes in several different varieties, including blood orangenavel orangesvalencia orangeclementineand tangerine. As well as variations in oranges used, some varieties include differing amounts of juice vesiclesknown as "pulp" in American English, and " juicy bits" in British English.
These vesicles contain the juice of the orange and can be left in or removed during the manufacturing process. How juicy these vesicles are depend upon many factors, such as species, variety, and season.
In American English, the beverage name is often abbreviated as " OJ ". Commercial orange juice with a long shelf life is made by pasteurizing the juice and removing the oxygen from it. This removes much of the taste, necessitating the later addition of a flavor pack, generally made from orange products.
Additionally, some juice is further processed by drying and later rehydrating the juice, or by concentrating the juice and later adding water to the concentrate. The health value of orange juice is debatable: it has a high concentration of vitamin Cbut also a very high concentration of simple sugars, comparable to soft drinks.
During World War IIAmerican soldiers rejected vitamin C -packed lemon crystals because of their unappetizing taste. Thus the government searched for a food that would fulfill the nutritional needs of the soldiers, have a desirable taste, and prevent diseases such as scurvy in a transportable vitamin C product. The federal government, the Florida department of Citrus, along with a group of scientists desired to develop a superior product to canned orange juice which was the current orange juice on the market in the s and developed frozen concentrated orange juice.
Unfortunately frozen concentrated orange juice was developed three years after the war had ended. Byorange juice processing plants in Florida were producing over 10 million gallons of concentrated orange juice.
Consumers were captivated with the idea of concentrated canned orange juice as it was affordable, tasty, convenient, and a vitamin C-rich product. The preparation was simple: empty the container of frozen concentrate into a measured volume of water and stir. However, by the s, food scientists developed a more fresh-tasting juice known as reconstituted ready-to-serve juice. Eventually in the s, "not from concentrate" NFC orange juice was developed.
Due to the importance of oranges to the economy of Florida, "the juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus sinensis and hybrids thereof" was adopted as the official beverage of Florida in Citrus juices contain flavonoids especially in the pulp that may have health benefits. Orange juice is also a source of the antioxidant hesperidin. Because of its citric acid content, orange juice is acidic, with a typical pH of around 3.
Commercial squeezed orange juice is pasteurized and filtered before being evaporated under vacuum and heat. Essences, Vitamin Cand oils extracted during the vacuum concentration process Various - Remixes (File) be added back to restore flavor and nutrition see below.
When water is added to freshly thawed concentrated orange juice, it is said to be reconstituted. Since, it has emerged as a soft commodityand futures contracts have traded in New York since Options on FCOJ were introduced in From the late s to the mids, the product had the greatest orange juice market share, but not-from-concentrate juices surpassed FCOJ in the s. Orange juice that is pasteurized and then sold to consumers without having been concentrated is labeled as "not from concentrate".
Just as "from concentrate" processing, most "not from concentrate" processing reduces the natural flavor from the juice. The largest producers of "not from concentrate" use a production process where the juice is placed in aseptic storagewith the oxygen stripped from it, for up to a year. Removing the oxygen also strips out flavor-providing compounds, and so manufacturers add a flavor pack Julio Jaramillo - Calla Corazon / Una Pena the final step,  which Cooks Illustrated magazine describes as containing "highly engineered additives.
One common component of flavor packs is ethyl So Fine - Sean Paul - Imperial Blazea natural aroma that people associate with freshness, and which is removed from juice during pasteurization and storage. Cooks Illustrated sent juice samples to independent laboratories, and found that while fresh-squeezed juice naturally contained about 1.
A Orange Juice - The Orange Juice fraction of fresh orange juice is canned. Canned orange juice retains vitamin C much better than bottled juice.
InOrange Juice - The Orange Juice . Philip Phillips developed a flash pasteurization process that eliminated this problem and significantly increased the market for canned orange juice. Fresh-squeezed, the unpasteurized juice is the closest Orange Juice - The Orange Juice consuming the orange itself.
This version of the juice consists of oranges that are squeezed and then bottled without having any additives or flavor packs inserted. The juice is not subjected to pasteurization. Depending on storage temperature, freshly squeezed, unpasteurized orange juice can have a Orange Juice - The Orange Juice life of 5 to 23 days.
In the U. Competing products include Minute Maid of The Coca-Cola Company and Florida's Natural a Floridian agricultural cooperative that differentiates itself from the competition by being locally owned and using only Orange Juice - The Orange Juice grown oranges; Tropicana and Simply Orange use a mixture of domestic and foreign stock.
In Australia, Daily Juice owned by National Foods is a major brand of partially fresh, partially preserved,  orange juice. Some producers add citric acid or ascorbic acid to juice beyond what is naturally found in the orange. Some also include other nutrients. Often, additional vitamin C is added to replace that destroyed in pasteurization. Additional calcium may be added. Vitamin Dnot found naturally in oranges, may be added as well. Sometimes omega-3 fatty acids from fish oils are added to orange juice.
FCOJ producers generally use evaporators to remove much of the water from the juice in order to decrease its weight and decrease transportation costs. Because such processes remove the distinct aroma compounds that give orange juice a fresh-squeezed taste, producers later add back these compounds in a proprietary mixture, called a "flavor pack", in order to improve the taste and to ensure a consistent year-round taste. Common orange juice is made from the sweet A) Shape - Fjord - Lives Lives. Different cultivars for example, ValenciaHamlin have different properties, and a producer may mix cultivar juices to get the desired taste.
Orange juice usually varies between shades of orange and yellow, although some ruby red or blood orange varieties are a reddish-orange or even pinkish. This is due to different pigmentation in ruby red oranges. The blood orange is a mutant of the sweet orange. The Love Thieves - Depeche Mode - Ultra Mandarin orange and varieties clementine and tangerineare often used for sparkling juice drinks.
Recently, many brands of organic orange juices have become available on the market. The processing of orange to frozen concentrated orange juice begins with testing the orange fruit for quality to ensure it is safe for the process. Then the fruit is cleaned and Orange Juice - The Orange Juice thoroughly and orange oil is taken from the peel of the orange.
Next, the juice is extracted from the orange and is screened in order to remove seeds and large pieces of pulp. The concentration step occurs in a high vacuum evaporator where the water content in the juice is evaporated while the juice sugar compounds and solids are concentrated.
Evaporators work in a continuous manner in that fresh juice is added as concentrate is being constantly removed. Next, a small amount of fresh juice is added to the concentrated juice to restore natural and fresh flavors of orange juice that have been lost through the concentration process. Specific cold-pressed orange oils are used to restore the lost aroma and volatile flavors.
Orange peel oil is also added if the oil content is below the required level. The concentrate is canned using steam injection methods to sterilize the lid and develop a vacuum in the can. Single strength orange juice SSOJ can either be "not from concentrate" NFC orange juice or juice that is reconstituted from a concentrate with the addition of water to reach a specific single strength brix level.
The processing of SSOJ also begins with the selection of orange. The most common types of orange used to produce orange juice are the Pineapple orange, Valencia Orange Juice - The Orange Juice , and Washington Navel oranges from Florida and California.
The manufacturing journey begins when oranges are Orange Juice - The Orange Juice to processing plants by trucks holding about 35, to 40, pounds of fruit. The fruit is unloaded at the plant for inspection and grading to remove unsuitable fruit before the oranges enter the storage bins.
An automatic sampler contraption I Got Your Body - Carol Douglas - I Got Your Body oranges for determination of acid and soluble solids.
The bins are organized based on ratio of soluble solids to acids in order to blend oranges appropriate to produce juice with uniform flavor. After the fruit leaves the bins, they are scrubbed with detergent on a rotary brush washer and subsequently rinsed with potable water. Throughout the processing stages, there are multiple points with facilities that inspect oranges and discard damaged fruit.
The oranges then go through roller conveyors, which expose all sides of the fruit. The roller conveyors are efficiently built as they are well lighted, installed at a convenient height, and width to ensure all inspectors can reach the fruit to determine inadequacies. Some reasons why fruit may Orange Juice - The Orange Juice rejected Another 100 Years - Sludge - Crime, Fashion, Idiots And Ducks indication of mold, rot, and ruptured peels.
Afterwards, the oranges are separated based on size through machines prior to juice extraction. There are a number of different ways orange juice industry leaders extract their oranges. One instrument inserts a tube through the orange peel and forces the juice out through the tube by squeezing the entire orange.
Despite the variety of machines used to extract juices, all machines have commonalities in that they are rugged, fast, easy to clean and have the ability to reduce peel extractives into the juice.
The extracted juice product does not contain the orange peel, but it may contain pulp and seeds, which are removed by finishers. Finishers have a screw-type design that comprises a conical helical screw enclosed in a cylindrical screen with perforations the size of 0. Thereafter, the finished orange juice flows through blending tanks where the juice is tested for acid and soluble solids.
At this stage, sugar can be added to the juice depending on if the product will be a sweetened or unsweetened beverage. Following blending, the orange juice is deaerated where the air is incorporated into the juice during extraction. The benefits of deaeration include the elimination of foaming, which improves the uniformity of can fill and improvement regarding the efficiency of the heat exchanger.
Orange peel oil is essential for maximum flavor, but according to U. Deoiling through the use of vacuum distillation is the mechanism used to regulate the amount of peel oil in the juice.
Condensation separates the oil and the aqueous distillate, which is returned to the juice. The next step is one of the most vital in the processing of orange juice. Pasteurization is important in destroying naturally occurring enzymes that are associated with deterioration of the juice.
Pectinesterase is infamous for its deteriorative activity in orange juice. Several industry leaders use flash pasteurization, which is carried out by tubular or plate-type heat exchangers.
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