Road Roller Constant Run - No Artist - Motorway Construction
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A road is a thoroughfareroute, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyanceincluding a motor vehiclecart, bicycle, or horse.
Roads consist of one or two roadways British English : carriagewayseach with one or more lanes and any associated sidewalks British English: pavement and road verges. There is sometimes a bike path. Other names for roads include parkways, avenues, freeways, tollways, interstates, highways, or primary, secondary, and tertiary local roads.
Historically many roads were simply recognizable routes without any formal construction or maintenance. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD defines a road as "a line of communication travelled way using a stabilized base other than rails or air strips open to public traffic, primarily for the use of road motor vehicles running on their own wheels", which includes "bridges, tunnels, supporting structures, junctions, crossings, interchanges, and toll roads, but not cycle paths".
The EurostatITF and UNECE Glossary for Transport Statistics Illustrated defines a road as a "Line of communication travelled way open to public traffic, primarily for the use of road motor vehicles, using a stabilized base other than rails or air strips. Roads also cover streets, bridges, tunnels, supporting structures, junctions, crossings and interchanges.
Toll roads are also included. Excluded are dedicated cycle lanes. The Vienna Convention on Road Traffic defines a road as the entire surface of any way or street open to public traffic. In urban areas roads may diverge through a city or village and be named as streets, serving a dual function as urban space easement and route. Part 2, Division 1, clauses of the National Transport Commission Road Transport Legislation defines a road in Australia as 'an area that is open to or used by the public and is developed for, or has as one of its main uses, the driving or riding of motor vehicles.
Further, it defines a shoulder typical an area of the road outside the edge line, or the kerb and a road-related area which includes green areas separating roads, areas designated for cyclists and areas generally accessible to the public for driving, riding or parking vehicles.
In New Zealand, the Everybody & Their Mother Wants To Be An MC - Shed Light - Perseverence of a road is broad in common law  where the statutory definition includes areas the public has access to, by right or not. In the United Kingdom The Highway Code details rules for "road users", but there is some ambiguity between the terms highway and road.
The definition of a road depends on the definition of a highway; there is no formal definition for a highway in the relevant Act. A ruling said "the land over which a public right of way exists is known as a highway; and although most highways have been made up into roads, and most easements of way exist over footpaths, the presence or absence of a made road has nothing to do with the distinction.
In the United States, laws distinguish between public roadswhich are open to public use, and private roads Road Roller Constant Run - No Artist - Motorway Construction , which are privately controlled. Maintenance is becoming an increasing problem in the United States. Between andthe percentage of existing roads that are too bumpy to drive on compared to roads with decent surfaces increased from 10 to 21 percent.
The assertion that the first pathways were the trails made by animals has not been universally accepted; in many cases animals do not follow constant paths.
Road design is part of highway engineering. Structural road design is designing a road for its environment in order to Fiercelydestinedcarbons - Various - Koji Tano (2005 - ∞) - A Tribute its longevity and reduce maintenance.
The Shell pavement design method is used in many countries for the design of new asphalt roadsides. In transport engineeringsubgrade is the native material underneath a constructed road. Road construction requires the creation of an engineered continuous right-of-way or roadbedovercoming geographic obstacles and having grades low enough to permit vehicle or foot travel : 15 and may be required to meet standards set by law  or official guidelines.
A variety of road building equipment is employed in road building. After design, approvalplanninglegal and environmental considerations have been addressed alignment of the road is set out by a surveyor. Roads are designed and built for primary use by vehicular and pedestrian traffic.
Storm drainage and environmental considerations are a major concern. Erosion and sediment controls are constructed to prevent detrimental effects. Drainage lines are laid with sealed joints in the road easement with runoff coefficients and characteristics adequate for the land zoning and storm water system. Drainage systems must be capable of carrying the ultimate design flow from the upstream catchment with approval for the outfall from the appropriate authority to a watercoursecreekriver or the sea for drainage discharge.
A borrow pit source for obtaining fill, gravel, and rock and a water source should be located near or in reasonable distance to the road Kool Skool - Nils Lofgren - Nils site. Approval from local authorities may be required to draw water or for working crushing and screening of materials for construction needs.
The topsoil and vegetation is removed from the borrow pit and stockpiled for subsequent rehabilitation of the extraction area. Side slopes in the excavation area not steeper than one vertical to two horizontal for safety reasons.
Old road surfaces, fences, and buildings may need to be removed before construction can begin. Trees in the road construction area may be marked for retention. These protected trees should not have the topsoil within the area of the tree's drip line removed and the area should be kept clear of construction material and equipment. Compensation or replacement may be required if a protected tree is damaged.
Much of the vegetation may be mulched and put aside for use during reinstatement. The topsoil is usually stripped and stockpiled nearby for rehabilitation of newly constructed embankments along the road.
Stumps and roots are removed and holes filled as required before the earthwork begins. Final rehabilitation after road construction is completed will include seeding, planting, watering and other activities to reinstate the area to be consistent with the untouched surrounding areas. Processes during earthwork include excavation, removal of material to spoil, filling, compacting, Road Roller Constant Run - No Artist - Motorway Construction and trimming.
Blasting is not frequently used to excavate the roadbed as the intact rock structure forms an ideal road base. When a depression must be filled to come up to the road grade the native bed is compacted after the topsoil has been removed. The fill is made by the "compacted layer method" where a layer of fill is spread then compacted to specifications, under saturated conditions.
The process is repeated until the desired grade is reached. Road Roller Constant Run - No Artist - Motorway Construction fill material should be free of organicsmeet minimum California bearing ratio CBR results and have a low plasticity index.
The lower fill generally comprises sand or a sand-rich mixture with fine gravel, which acts as an inhibitor to the growth of plants or other vegetable matter. The compacted fill also serves as lower-stratum drainage. Select second fill sieved should be composed of graveldecomposed rock or broken rock below a specified particle size and be free of large lumps of clay.
Sand clay fill may also be used. The roadbed must be "proof rolled" after each layer of fill is compacted. If a roller passes over an area without creating visible deformation or spring the Road Roller Constant Run - No Artist - Motorway Construction is deemed to comply.
Geosynthetics such as geotextilesgeogrids and geocells are frequently used in the various pavement layers to improve road quality. These materials and methods are used in low-traffic private roadways as well as public roads and highways. The completed roadway is finished by paving or left with a gravel or other natural surface. The type of road surface is dependent on economic factors and expected usage. Safety improvements such as traffic signscrash barriersraised pavement markers and other forms of road surface marking are installed.
When a single carriageway road is converted into dual carriageway by building a second separate carriageway alongside the first, it is usually referred to as duplication twinning or doubling. The original carriageway is changed from two-way to become one-way, while the new carriageway is one-way in the opposite direction.
In the same way as converting railway lines from single track to double trackthe new carriageway is not always constructed directly alongside the existing carriageway. Like all structures, roads deteriorate over time.
Deterioration is primarily due to accumulated damage from vehicles, however environmental effects such as frost heavesthermal cracking and oxidation often contribute. Potholes on roads are caused by rain damage and vehicle braking or related construction works.
Pavements are designed for an expected service life or design life. In some parts of the United Kingdom the Road Roller Constant Run - No Artist - Motorway Construction design life is 40 years for new bitumen and concrete Road Roller Constant Run - No Artist - Motorway Construction . Maintenance is considered in the whole life cost of the road with service at 10, 20 and 30 year milestones.
When pavement lasts longer than its intended life, it may have been overbuilt, and the original costs may have been too high. When a pavement fails before its intended design life, the owner may have excessive repair and rehabilitation costs. Some asphalt pavements are designed as perpetual pavements with an expected structural life in excess of 50 years.
Many asphalt pavements built over 35 years ago, despite not being specifically designed as a perpetual pavement, have remained in good condition long past their design life.
Virtually all roads require some form of maintenance before they come to the end of their service life. Pro-active agencies use pavement management techniques to continually monitor road conditions and schedule preventive maintenance treatments as needed to prolong the lifespan of their roads. These measurements include road curvaturecross slopeasperityroughnessrutting and texture. Software algorithms use this data to recommend maintenance or new construction. Maintenance treatments for asphalt concrete generally include thin asphalt overlays, crack sealing, surface rejuvenating, fog sealingfo, micro milling or diamond grinding and surface treatments.
Life Is Worse - Zero Defex - Demo surfacing preserves, protects and improves the functional condition of the road while reducing the need for routing maintenance, leading to extended service life without increasing structural capacity.
Older concrete pavements that develop faults can be repaired with a dowel bar retrofitin which slots are cut in the pavement at each joint, and dowel bars are Muskrat Ramble - Louis Armstrong - The Masters Of Jazz - Louis Armstrong - 1900 - 1971 in the slots, which are then filled with concrete patching material. This can extend the life of the concrete pavement for 15 years.
Distress and serviceability loss on concrete roads can be caused by loss of support due to voids beneath the concrete pavement slabs. The voids usually occur near cracks or joints Road Roller Constant Run - No Artist - Motorway Construction to surface water infiltration.
The most common causes of voids are pumping, consolidation, subgrade failure and bridge approach failure. Slab stabilization is a non-destructive method of Interview Part 46 - Johnny Cash - American IV: The Man Comes Around this problem and is usually employed with other Concrete Pavement Restoration CPR methods including patching and diamond grinding.
The technique restores support to concrete slabs All I Could Do Was Cry - Various - Sound Of The 60s filing small voids that develop underneath the concrete slab at joints, cracks or the pavement edge. The process consists of pumping a cementitious grout or polyurethane mixture through holes drilled through the slab.
The grout also displaces free water and helps keep water from saturating and weakening support under the joints and slab edge after stabilization is complete. The three steps for this method after finding the Road Roller Constant Run - No Artist - Motorway Construction are locating and drilling holes, grout injection and post-testing the stabilized slabs.
Slab stabilization does not correct depressions, increase the design structural capacity, stop erosion or eliminate faulting. It does, however, restore the slab support, therefore, decreasing deflections under the load. Stabilization should only be performed at joints and cracks where loss of support exists. Visual inspection is the simplest manner to find voids.
Signs that repair is needed are transverse joint faulting, corner breaks and shoulder drop off and lines at or near joints and cracks. Deflection testing is another common procedure utilized to locate voids. It is recommended to do this testing at night as during cooler temperatures, joints open, aggregate interlock diminishes and load deflections are at their highest.
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