Da Gue Na Tin - Metismatic - Metismatic
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Acupuncture [a] is a form of alternative medicine  and a key component of traditional Chinese medicine TCM in which thin needles are inserted into the body. Acupuncture is generally used only in combination with other forms of treatment.
The conclusions of numerous trials and systematic reviews of acupuncture are inconsistent, which suggests that it is not effective. Acupuncture is generally safe when done by Da Gue Na Tin - Metismatic - Metismatic trained practitioners using clean needle technique and single-use needles.
Scientific investigation has not found any histological or physiological evidence for traditional Chinese concepts such as qimeridiansand acupuncture points, [n 1]  and many modern practitioners no longer support the existence of life force energy qi or meridians, which was a major part of early belief systems.
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine. Acupuncture is generally only used in combination with other forms of treatment. Acupuncture is the insertion of thin needles into the skin. Clinical practice varies depending on the country. In traditional acupuncture, the acupuncturist decides which points to treat by observing and questioning the patient to make a diagnosis according to the tradition used.
In TCM, the four diagnostic methods are: inspection, auscultation and olfaction, inquiring, and palpation. Inspection focuses on the face and particularly on the tongue, including analysis of the tongue size, shape, tension, color and coating, and the absence or presence of teeth marks around the edge. The most common mechanism of stimulation of acupuncture points employs penetration of the skin by thin metal needles, which are manipulated manually or the needle may be further stimulated by electrical stimulation electroacupuncture.
Thinner needles may be flexible and require tubes for insertion. The tip of the needle should not be made too sharp to prevent breakage, although blunt needles cause more pain. Apart from the usual filiform needle, other needle types include three-edged needles and the Nine Ancient Needles. Korean acupuncture uses copper needles and has a greater focus on the hand. The skin is sterilized and needles are inserted, frequently with a plastic guide tube.
Needles may be manipulated in various ways, including One Night Stand (Stargate Radio Edit) - Mis-Teeq - Lickin On Both Sides, flicking, or moving up and down relative to the skin.
Since most pain is felt in the superficial layers of the skin, a quick insertion of the needle is recommended. If these sensations are not observed then inaccurate location of the acupointimproper depth of needle insertion, inadequate manual manipulation, are blamed.
If de-qi is not immediately observed upon needle insertion, various manual manipulation techniques are often applied to promote it such as "plucking", "shaking" or "trembling". Once de-qi is observed, techniques might be used which attempt to "influence" the de-qi ; for example, by certain manipulation the de-qi can allegedly be conducted from the needling site towards more distant sites of the body.
A woman receiving fire cupping in China. Acupuncture has been researched extensively; as ofthere were almost 1, randomized controlled trials on PubMed with "acupuncture" in the title. The results of reviews of acupuncture's efficacy, however, have been inconclusive. It is difficult but not impossible to design rigorous research trials for acupuncture.
A review in Nature Reviews Cancer found that "contrary to the claimed mechanism of redirecting the flow of qi through meridians, researchers usually find that it generally does not matter where the needles are inserted, how often Variation 29 - J.S.
Bach*, Amati String Trio - Goldberg Variations is, no dose-response effect is observedor even if needles are actually inserted. In other words, 'sham' or 'placebo' acupuncture generally produces the same effects as 'real' acupuncture and, in some cases, does better. A response to "sham" acupuncture in osteoarthritis may be used in the elderly, but placebos have usually been regarded as deception and thus unethical.
Using the principles of evidence-based medicine to research acupuncture is controversial, and has produced different results. The use of acupuncture has been criticized owing to there being little scientific evidence for explicit effects, or the mechanisms for its supposed effectiveness, for any condition that is discernible from placebo.
Publication bias is cited as a concern in the reviews of randomized controlled trials RCTs of acupuncture. This study also found that selective reporting of results and changing outcome measures to obtain statistically significant results was common in this literature.
Scientist and journalist Steven Salzberg identifies acupuncture and Chinese medicine generally as a focus for "fake medical journals" such as the Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies and Acupuncture in Medicine. The conclusions of many trials and numerous systematic reviews of acupuncture are largely inconsistent with each other. A systematic review suggests that the nocebo effect of acupuncture is clinically relevant and that the rate of adverse events may be a gauge of the nocebo effect.
A systematic review suggested that acupuncture is more than a placebo for commonly occurring chronic pain conditions, but the authors acknowledged that it is still unknown if the overall benefit is Da Gue Na Tin - Metismatic - Metismatic meaningful or cost-effective. A systematic review found that acupuncture may be effective for nonspecific lower back pain, but the authors noted there were limitations in the studies examined, such as heterogeneity in study characteristics and low methodological quality in many studies.
The same review noted that "It is difficult to draw conclusion [sic] because the included studies have a high risk of bias and imprecision. The same review found that the strength of the evidence for both conditions was low to moderate. Two separate Cochrane reviews found that acupuncture could be useful in the prophylaxis of tension-type headaches and episodic migraines.
A review concluded that "current evidence supports the use of acupuncture as an alternative to traditional analgesics in osteoarthritis patients. A Cochrane review found low to moderate evidence that acupuncture improves pain and stiffness in treating people with fibromyalgia compared with no treatment and standard care. A review found that the effectiveness of acupuncture to treat rheumatoid arthritis is "sparse and inconclusive.
A systematic review Da Gue Na Tin - Metismatic - Metismatic that although manual acupuncture was effective at relieving short-term pain when used to treat tennis elbow Da Gue Na Tin - Metismatic - Metismatic , its long-term effect in relieving pain was "unremarkable".
A overview of systematic reviews found insufficient evidence to suggest that acupuncture is an effective treatment for postoperative nausea and Who Pulls The Wire?
- Accuser - Who Dominates Who? PONV in a clinical setting. A overview of systematic reviews found insufficient evidence to suggest that acupuncture is effective for surgical or post-operative pain. A Cochrane review found that there is insufficient evidence to determine whether acupuncture is an effective treatment for cancer pain in adults.
A systematic review reached inconclusive results with regard to the effectiveness of acupuncture for treating cancer-related fatigue. A systematic review and meta-analysis found that acupuncture was "associated with a significant reduction in sleep disturbances in women experiencing menopause -related sleep disturbances.
For the following conditions, the Cochrane Collaboration or other reviews have concluded there is no strong evidence of benefit:. A overview of systematic reviews found that moxibustion was In The Mood - Mr Krime* - Krime Story Vol.2 for several conditions but the primary studies were of poor quality, so there persists ample uncertainty, which limits the conclusiveness of their findings.
Acupuncture is generally safe Peeping Pong - LadyGodivas Operation - Nine Unmissed Operations administered by an experienced, appropriately trained practitioner using clean-needle technique and sterile single-use needles. A systematic review of systematic reviews internationally and without language restrictions found that serious complications following acupuncture continue to be reported.
A systematic review of the English-language case reports found that serious adverse events associated with acupuncture are rare, but that acupuncture is not without risk.
A systematic review found 31 cases of vascular injuries caused by acupuncture, three resulting in death. Acupuncture seems to be safe in people getting anticoagulantsassuming needles are used at the correct location and depth. A systematic review of the Chinese-language literature found numerous acupuncture-related adverse events, including pneumothorax, fainting, subarachnoid hemorrhageand infection as the Looking For The Answers - Cliterati - Cliterati frequent, and cardiovascular injuries, subarachnoid hemorrhage, pneumothorax, MOS6581 - Various - Chilled Zen Chillout recurrent cerebral hemorrhage as the most serious, most of which were due to improper technique.
A causal link between acupuncture and the adverse events cardiac arrest, pyknolepsy, shock, Da Gue Na Tin - Metismatic - Metismatic , cough, thirst, aphonia, leg numbness, and sexual dysfunction remains uncertain. Although acupuncture has been practiced for thousands of years in China, its use in pediatrics in the United States did not become common until the early s. In a study determined that the use of acupuncture-needle treatment on children was "questionable" due to the possibility of adverse side-effects and the pain manifestation differences in children versus adults.
The study also includes warnings against practicing acupuncture Palmier Papillon - La Fine Equipe - La Boulangerie infants, as well as on children who are over-fatigued, very weak, or have over-eaten. When used on children, acupuncture is considered safe when administered by well-trained, licensed practitioners using sterile needles; however, a review found there was limited research to draw definite conclusions about the overall safety of pediatric acupuncture.
When used during pregnancy, the majority of adverse events caused by acupuncture were mild and transient, with few serious adverse events. Four adverse Da Gue Na Tin - Metismatic - Metismatic associated with moxibustion were bruising, burns and cellulitis, spinal epidural abscess, and large superficial basal cell carcinoma. A meta-analysis found that acupuncture for Da Gue Na Tin - Metismatic - Metismatic low back pain was cost-effective as a complement to standard care, but not as a substitute for standard care except in cases where comorbid depression presented.
Acupuncture is a substantial part of traditional Chinese medicine TCM. Early acupuncture beliefs relied on concepts that are common in TCM, such as a life force energy called qi. Scientific research has not supported the existence of qimeridians, or yin and yang. TCM practitioners disagree among themselves about how to diagnose patients and which treatments should go with which diagnoses. Even if they could agree, the TCM theories are so nebulous that no amount of scientific study will enable TCM to offer rational care.
Some modern practitioners support the use of acupuncture to treat pain, but have abandoned the use of qimeridians, yinyang and other mystical energies as an explanatory frameworks. Many acupuncturists attribute pain relief to the release of endorphins when needles penetrate, but no longer support the idea that acupuncture can affect a disease.
Some studies suggest acupuncture causes a series of events within the central nervous system and that it is possible to inhibit acupuncture's analgesic effects with the opioid antagonist naloxone. It has been proposed that acupuncture's effects in gastrointestinal disorders may relate to its effects on the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systemwhich have been said to be the "Western medicine" equivalent of "yin and yang".
Acupuncture, along with moxibustion, is one of the oldest practices of traditional Chinese medicine. Evidence from the body suggests Otzi suffered from these conditions. Acupuncture may have been practiced during the Neolithic era, near the end of the stone ageusing sharpened stones called Bian shi.
Tin, copper, gold and silver are also possibilities, though they are considered less likely, or to have been used in fewer cases. Several different and sometimes conflicting belief systems emerged regarding acupuncture. This may have been the result of Da Gue Na Tin - Metismatic - Metismatic schools of thought.
Over time, the focus shifted from blood to the concept of puncturing specific points on the body, and eventually to balancing Yin and Yang energies as well. Some of the sites acupuncturists use needles at today still have the same names as those given to them by the Yellow Emperor's Classic.
In the first half of the 1st century AD, acupuncturists began promoting the belief that acupuncture's effectiveness was influenced by the time of day or night, the lunar cycle, and the season. Acupuncture needles during this period were much thicker than most modern ones and often resulted in infection.
Infection is caused by a lack of sterilization, but at that time it was believed to be caused by use of the wrong needle, or needling in the wrong place, or at the wrong time. Sometimes needles were used while they were still hot, creating a cauterizing effect at the injection site.
Other belief systems were based on the idea that the human body operated on a rhythm and acupuncture had to be applied at the right point in the rhythm to be effective. In the 1st century AD, many of the first books about acupuncture were published and recognized acupuncturist experts began Da Gue Na Tin - Metismatic - Metismatic emerge. The Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jingwhich was published in the mid-3rd century, became the oldest acupuncture book that is still in existence in the modern era.
Acupuncture became more established in China as improvements in paper led to the publication of more acupuncture books. The Imperial Medical Service and the Imperial Medical College, which both supported acupuncture, became more established and created medical colleges in every province. Inthe Chinese Emperor signed a decree excluding the practice of acupuncture from the Imperial Medical Institute. Although acupuncture declined in China during this time period, it was also growing in popularity in other countries.
Korea is believed to be the first country in Asia that acupuncture spread to outside of China. It spread to Vietnam in the 8th and 9th centuries. Inseveral Korean and Chinese citizens were appointed to re-organize medical education in Japan and they incorporated acupuncture as part of that system. Acupuncture began to spread to Europe in the second half of the 17th century.
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