Хожу как бездельник и лодырь (народная) - Various - Грузинские городские песни и мелодии
Label: Мелодия - СМ00677 • Format: Cassette Compilation • Country: USSR • Genre: Folk, World, & Country • Style: Folk
If we are to solve the problem of climate change, all of humankind must adopt workable and effective measures over the long term. For this reason Nippon Keidanren Japan Business Federation has for some time stressed the need to build a fair and effective post international framework in which all the major countries will participate. In the current global economic climate, it is important above all that we build an international framework that can address climate change in such a way that environmental protection is compatible with economic growth.
In Japan, industry has already achieved the world"s highest levels of energy efficiency by adopting the Voluntary Action Plans on the Environment and by continuing to pursue technological development and other efforts to save energy. We intend to sustain such efforts into the future and to put our experience to work to help build a post international framework and create a low-carbon society.
In the following, we outline the business community"s positions on the major issues pertaining to a post international framework, including the items currently under negotiation long-term vision, mitigation [action to stem climate change], technology, funding, and adaptation to the impact of climate change.
The Japanese business community believes that the following elements are essential for a fair and effective post international framework in which environmental preservation is compatible with economic growth and all major countries participate. The first is the participation of Take Time To Be Holy - Willie Nash - Hour Of Hope major emitters, including the United States, China, and India.
Without the participation of the major emitters, an international framework will not be effective in stemming climate change, and its fairness will be compromised as well. The second is the establishment of equitable medium-term targets. Unless fair medium-term targets can be set, we will not be able to expect the participation of all major emitters, and the framework will be ineffective.
From this standpoint, a sectoral approach to target setting and a reconsideration of the base year are both important components. The third element is an emphasis on technology development of innovative technology and dissemination of existing technologies. Achieving such goals as halving greenhouse gas GHG emissions by will not be possible using the basic technologies currently available; innovative, breakthrough technologies will be essential to achieving dramatic reductions in GHG emissions.
Until such innovative technologies are developed, moreover, it is Хожу как бездельник и лодырь (народная) - Various - Грузинские городские песни и мелодии to reduce or limit GHG emissions by disseminating existing technologies as widely as possible.
For this reason the post international framework should include measures to directly accelerate the development of innovative technologies and to promote the diffusion of existing technologies. We call on the government of Japan and the governments of other countries to base their negotiations on the current realities, with due consideration for the foregoing points in particular. Because prevention of climate change is a challenge that will require cooperation on a global scale over a period of decades, it is essential that the post international framework include a vision that the entire world can share over the long term.
At the Hokkaido Toyako Summit, the G8 leaders agreed to call on all parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to adopt as their long-term vision a 50 percent or greater reduction in global emissions by The leaders participating in the MEM also agreed on the importance of a long-term shared vision. Progress on negotiations for the adoption of a shared vision should be made at COP To ensure that our emissions reduction efforts are workable and effective, it is important that as many countries and regions as possible pursue the most effective emissions-reduction strategies for their own circumstances.
It is important that Japan join these countries in embracing such a target to contribute to the prevention of climate change. Even among countries and regions that do not have total emissions targets, the emerging economies that have experienced dramatic economic growth in recent years also have a major responsibility in terms of fighting climate change, inasmuch as their emissions are expected to rise sharply in the years ahead. An option that should be considered for these emerging countries, in consideration of the rapid-growth phase of economic development at which they find themselves, is the establishment of targets pertaining to the ratio of GHG emissions or energy consumption to GDP, that is, intensity targets.
In addition, in terms of mitigation actions, it may be possible for countries to commit to policy measures suggested by a sectoral approach. To secure the long-term emissions-reduction efforts of as many countries as possible, it is important that the establishment of medium-term targets be carried out with fairness and objectivity, and also that each country can recognize clearly the specific emission-reduction or other mitigation measures it has to take, as well as a timetable for achieving those targets.
A rational approach, consistent with the principle of subsidiarity, must be taken by each country in setting its own target. Reduction potential should be calculated sector by sector, without resorting to "flexibility measures," in accordance with internationally agreed-upon criteria, using objective data for each manufacturing process or product, including energy efficiency benchmarks and performance benchmarks as well as the state of sector technologies and the outlook for their dissemination.
The reduction potential for each Хожу как бездельник и лодырь (народная) - Various - Грузинские городские песни и мелодии would then be aggregated to yield a national total emissions target. The methods used to achieve these post medium-term targets should Хожу как бездельник и лодырь (народная) - Various - Грузинские городские песни и мелодии the most useful and Knock On Wood - Various - Pillow Talk methods for each country.
It is thus important to ensure a diversity of policy approaches in keeping with the circumstances of each country. We believe that each of the abovementioned targets, including total emissions targets for industrial countries, etc. However, as part of an effort to verify fairness and objectivity from various angles, the medium-term targets should be negotiated on the basis of the rate of reduction or improvement compared with multiple base years, including the latest year for which data is available.
Under the Kyoto Protocol, countries made international commitments to reduce emissions by a certain percentage from a specific base year, However, since there are discrepancies between countries in respect to changes in energy supply conditions, social conditions, previous reduction efforts, and so forth, international commitments in the form of reduction percentage from a specific base year should not be made from the view point of equity.
With regard to mitigation, it stands to reason that emphasis should be not only on carbon emission but also on carbon absorption. Deliberations should proceed on the premise that land use, land-use change, and forestry will be used to achieve medium-term targets in a manner that maintains continuity and consistency with the rules of the Kyoto Protocol.
Since innovative technologies is essential if we are to solve the problem of climate change without sacrificing economic growth, it is necessary that global resources be channeled into the development of such technologies. In May this year the Japanese government"s Council for Science and Technology Policy adopted a Low Carbon Technology Plan that includes a roadmap for the development of 36 environmental and energy technologies. With this plan as a starting point, industrial countries and any willing developing countries should work to promote development of Хожу как бездельник и лодырь (народная) - Various - Грузинские городские песни и мелодии technologies by sharing technological roadmaps, strengthening partnerships, and increasing investment in research and development.
To stem climate change, it is also important that we disseminate and make maximum use of existing technologies, and to this end industrial countries must actively provide technical assistance to developing countries.
Because such technical assistance leads to improved energy efficiency in developing countries, it will also help encourage participation by developing countries in a post international framework. It is important to encourage and remove impediments to such business-based technology transfer to ensure that technology transfer continues over the long term.
It is necessary first of all to remove such barriers. Where necessary, support through public funding should be considered to facilitate the removal of impediments to technology transfer. It has been suggested that compulsory licensing or purchase of intellectual property rights should be considered as a way to promote technology transfer.
However, such measures have a high potential for causing major damage by undermining incentives for the development of innovative technologies, which are most needed to address climate change over the long term.
Nor are such compulsory measures truly effective in promoting technology transfer. In order for technologies for preventing climate change to be used in practice, people need to have know-how to manage the technologies, as well as the intellectual property rights of the technologies.
Even if a host country acquires the intellectual property rights through compulsory licensing or purchasing, it has little hope of putting the technology to good use unless it has the know-how to use it effectively thereafter. Another problem is that, because any given technology is an aggregate of intellectual property rights and various types of know-how for which there is no standard market price, it becomes difficult to define what is to be compulsorily licensed Хожу как бездельник и лодырь (народная) - Various - Грузинские городские песни и мелодии purchased and what value should be assigned.
For this reason we are opposed to compulsory licensing or purchase of intellectual property rights. In this connection the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate APP has been successful as a framework in which the public and private sectors of industrial and developing countries participate in practical activities to promote technical assistance, including the dissemination of best practices.
In I Can Dream, Cant I? - The Andrews Sisters - Greatest Hits The 60th Anniversary Collection post international framework, it is important to utilize the experience of public-private cooperation in the APP.
Based on the views of private experts of each sector, we must share information on best practices and the diffusion of technology, carry out analyses on the potential for emissions reduction resulting from the adoption of technologies or practices and improvements in their application, and study assistance measures using all this information.
In addition, it is important that there be due recognition of the private sector"s role in international technical assistance, including personnel contributions.
Mitigating climate change and adapting to its negative impact requires mechanisms for providing public funds to aid developing countries. Such mechanisms already exist in the form of various funds, such as that established under the UN Framework Convention on Were Going Home - Montrose - Paper Money Change. The first step is to work to ensure that these are managed appropriately. Should it become necessary to respond to further demand for funding, each country"s current level of effort should be evaluated objectively and fairly using a variety of criteria, including contributions to such multilateral frameworks as the World Bank, ODA outlays, and technical assistance.
One proposal for supporting developing countries in their efforts to prevent climate change involves the concept of a sectoral crediting mechanism? However, this idea raises the following problems:. If this occurred, not only could the emissions reduction effect anticipated in the developing countries be in question but the price of emissions credits would fall, permitting other countries to purchase them cheaply to fulfill their own reduction commitments and thus Munyam Jam (Bunnin Break) - IRS - Welcome To Planet IRS global emissions reduction.
Going forward, it will be necessary to carefully deliberate the pros and cons of any such mechanism after fleshing out the concept, on the following premises:. A funding mechanism should be established to strengthen adaptation measures in countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse impact of climate change.
Fundamentally, funding for adaptation should be provided by the public sector, since it is deemed to be often difficult for the private sector to provide such funds for reason of economic viability.
With regard to developing countries" adaptation to climate change, the private sector can contribute by providing technology both software and hardware for the prior assessment, management, and abatement of risks associated with climate change.
Negotiations are currently under way in the WTO to eliminate or reduce tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade in environmentally sound goods and services. It is to be hoped that these negotiations can be accelerated, as encouraging worldwide use of the best energy-efficient products and renewable-energy products by removing barriers to their trade is an effective way to help address climate change. The G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit Leaders Declaration stated, similarly, that "efforts in the WTO negotiations to eliminate tariffs and non-tariff barriers to environmental goods and services should be enhanced with a view to disseminating clean technology and skills.
In the course of WTO negotiations, a number of countries, including Japan, have submitted proposals for trade in goods and services, an area where tariff and non-tariff barriers should be eliminated. From the standpoint of stemming climate change, it is vital that we eliminate tariff and non-tariff barriers to as many environmental goods and services as possible, including energy-efficient appliances and hybrid vehicles.
Japan"s post medium-term targets are to be set some time next year, and a Mid-term Target Committee was recently set up under the prime minister"s Council on the Global Warming Issue to deliberate the question. If an overly ambitious target is set without adequate consideration of the specific measures needed to achieve it and the costs involved, the heavy burden it places on the nation will come back to haunt us. It is essential that objective data be used to arrive at a target that is fair in comparison with those of other countries and feasible in every Хожу как бездельник и лодырь (народная) - Various - Грузинские городские песни и мелодии , including the concrete mitigation measures involved and their costs.
We strongly urge the Mid-term Free (Free 2 Flow Mix) - Various - Techno Computer 97 Committee to conduct realistic and responsible deliberations, fully disclosing all information pertaining to the public burden.
For years, Nippon Keidanren has been working proactively to address climate change by helping boost Japanese industry"s energy efficiency to the world"s highest levels through tireless technological development and investment in energy-saving practices, and by adopting Keidanren Voluntary Action Plan on the Environment inin advance of the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol. Nippon Keidanren is committed to continuing the fight against climate change not only during the Kyoto Protocol commitment period but in the post era as well.
Nippon Keidanren will continue working to tackle climate change through all avenues, not only by reducing emissions from our own businesses" manufacturing and other processes but also by offering high-quality energy-efficient products, providing technical assistance to developing countries, and developing innovative technologies. At the same time we will Young Boy, Young Girl - Danny Thomas - Tomorrow Belongs To You making a vigorous case for appropriate government policies that will lead to substantial reductions in Japan"s greenhouse gas emissions, including respect for voluntary action plans as a tool for reducing industrial emissions, active use of nuclear energy, and the institution of daylight savings time, etc.
Introduction If we are to solve the problem of climate change, all of humankind must adopt workable and effective measures over the long term. Essential Elements of a Post International Framework The Japanese business community believes that the following elements are essential for a fair and effective post international framework in which environmental preservation is compatible with economic growth and all major countries participate.
Position on Specific Items 1. Shared vision Because prevention of climate change is a challenge that will require cooperation on a global scale over a Хожу как бездельник и лодырь (народная) - Various - Грузинские городские песни и мелодии of decades, it is essential that the post international framework include a vision that the entire world can share over the long term.
Mitigation 1 Countries and regions with medium-term targets To ensure that our emissions reduction efforts are workable and effective, it is important that as many countries and regions as possible pursue the most effective emissions-reduction strategies for their own circumstances. Technology 1 Developing innovative technologies Since innovative technologies is essential if we are to solve the problem of climate change without sacrificing economic growth, it is necessary that global resources be channeled into the development of such technologies.
Financial Mechanisms 1 Improving public financial mechanisms Mitigating climate change and adapting to its negative impact requires mechanisms for providing public funds to aid developing countries.
However, this idea raises the following problems:  In developing countries, there is at present insufficient data of a quality to serve as a basis for credit certification, making the establishment of appropriate targets difficult. Going forward, it will be necessary to carefully deliberate the pros and cons of any such mechanism after fleshing out the concept, on the following premises:  There is a way to monitor the situation, obtain reports on the volume of emissions reductions, and verify compliance on the basis of actual measurements.
Adaptation A funding mechanism should be established to strengthen adaptation measures in countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse impact of climate change. Other Key Points 1. Liberalizing trade in environmentally sound goods and services Negotiations are currently under way in the WTO to eliminate or reduce tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade in environmentally sound goods and services.
Japan"s medium-term targets Japan"s post medium-term targets are to be set some time next year, and a Mid-term Target Committee Хожу как бездельник и лодырь (народная) - Various - Грузинские городские песни и мелодии recently set up under the prime minister"s Council on the Global Warming Issue to deliberate the question. Conclusion For years, Nippon Keidanren has been working proactively to address climate change by helping boost Japanese industry"s energy efficiency to the world"s highest levels through tireless technological development and investment Хожу как бездельник и лодырь (народная) - Various - Грузинские городские песни и мелодии energy-saving practices, and by adopting Keidanren Voluntary Action Plan on the Environment inin advance of the adoption Before Tomorrow - Gandalf The Grey - The Grey Wizard Am I the Kyoto Protocol.
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