My Little Secret - Yersinia Pestis - Sector Alpha
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Yersinia pestis  formerly Pasteurella pestis is a Gram-negativenonmotilerod-shapedcoccobacillus My Little Secret - Yersinia Pestis - Sector Alpha , with no spores. It is a facultative anaerobic organism that can infect humans via the Oriental rat flea.
Named Pasteurella pestis in the past, the organism was renamed Yersinia pestis in Every year, thousands of cases of the plague are still reported to the World Health Organizationalthough with proper treatment, the prognosis for victims is now much better. A five- My Little Secret - Yersinia Pestis - Sector Alpha six-fold increase in cases occurred in Asia during the time of the Vietnam Warpossibly due to the disruption of ecosystems and closer proximity between people and animals.
The plague also has a detrimental effect on nonhuman mammals. The complete genomic sequence is available for two of the three subspecies of Y. The chromosome of strain KIM is 4, base pairs long; the chromosome of strain CO92 is 4, base pairs long.
Like Y. Among other things, these virulence factors are required for bacterial adhesion and injection of proteins into the host cell, invasion of bacteria in the host cell via a type-III secretion systemand acquisition and binding of iron harvested from red blood cells by siderophores. A comprehensive and comparative proteomics analysis of Y. Numerous bacterial small noncoding RNAs have been identified to play regulatory functions. Some can regulate the virulence genes.
Some 63 novel putative sRNAs were identified through deep sequencing of My Little Secret - Yersinia Pestis - Sector Alpha Y. Among them was Yersinia -specific also present in Y. Among them sR predicted to pair with SD region and transcription initiation site of a thermo-sensitive regulator ymoA, and sR predicted to pair with furferric uptake regulator. In the urban and sylvatic forest cycles of Y. In the sylvatic cycle, the rodent is wild, but in the urban cycle, the rodent is primarily the brown rat.
In addition, Y. Transmission to humans is usually through the bite of infected fleas. If the disease has progressed to the pneumonic form, humans can spread the bacterium to others by coughing, vomiting, and possibly sneezing. Several species of rodents serve as the main reservoir for Y. In the steppesthe natural reservoir is believed to be principally the marmot. In the western United States, several species of rodents are thought to maintain Y.
However, the expected disease dynamics have not been found in any rodent. Several species of rodents are known to have a variable resistance, which could lead to an asymptomatic carrier status.
The lack of knowledge of the dynamics of plague in mammal species is also true among susceptible rodents such as the black-tailed prairie dog Cynomys ludovicianusin which plague can cause colony collapse, resulting in a massive effect on prairie food webs. In other regions of the world, the reservoir of the infection is not clearly identified, which complicates prevention and early-warning programs.
One such example was seen in a outbreak in Algeria. Their symptoms are similar to those experienced by humans. Cats infected with plague can infect people through bites, scratches, coughs, or sneezes. The transmission of Y. Several proteins then contribute to the maintenance of the bacteria in the flea digestive tract, among them the hemin storage system and Yersinia murine toxin Ymt. Although Ymt is highly toxic to rodents and was once thought to be produced to ensure reinfection of new hosts, it is important for the survival of Y.
The hemin storage system plays an important role in the transmission of Y. Bacot Desire - The Gap Band - Gap Band VII, the first to describe this phenomenon. Ingested blood is pumped into the esophagus, where it dislodges bacteria lodged in the proventriculus which is regurgitated back into the host circulatory system.
Pathogenesis due to Y. Flea bites allow for the bacteria to My Little Secret - Yersinia Pestis - Sector Alpha the skin barrier.
Two important antiphagocytic antigensnamed F1 fraction 1 and V or LcrVare both important for virulence. Furthermore, Y. Natural or induced immunity is achieved by the production of specific opsonic antibodies against F1 and V antigens; antibodies against F1 and V induce phagocytosis by neutrophils. In addition, some Y. The ability of Y. YopH is a protein tyrosine phosphatase that contributes to the ability of Y.
YopH also binds Ker Tolgaou (Iikhlass) - Various - Voyage En URSS (Anthologie De La Musique Instrumentale Et Vocale p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinasethe Gab1the Gab2 adapter proteins, and the Vav guanine nucleotide exchange factor.
YopT is a cysteine protease that inhibits RhoA by removing the isoprenyl groupwhich is important for localizing the protein to the cell membrane. YopO is a potent inducer of human macrophage apoptosis. In addition to rodents and humans, it is known to have killed dogs, cats, camels, chickens, and pigs. A formalin -inactivated vaccine once was available in the United States for adults at high risk of contracting the plague until removal from the market by the Food and Drug Administration.
It was of limited effectiveness and could cause severe inflammation. Experiments with genetic engineering of a vaccine based on F1 and V antigens are underway and show promise. However, bacteria lacking antigen F1 are still virulent, and the V antigens are sufficiently variable such that vaccines composed of these antigens may not be fully protective.
Though both investigators reported their findings, a series of confusing and contradictory statements by Kitasato eventually led to the acceptance of Yersin as the primary discoverer of the organism. Yersin named it Pasteurella pestis in honor of the Pasteur Institutewhere he worked. Init was moved to a new genus and renamed Yersinia pestis in his honor. Yersin also noted that rats were affected by plague not only during plague epidemics, but also often preceding such epidemics in humans and that plague was regarded by many locals as a disease of rats; villagers in China and India asserted that when large numbers of rats were found dead, plague outbreaks soon followed.
InFrench scientist Paul-Louis Simond who had also come to China to battle the Third Pandemic established the rat-flea vector that drives the disease.
He had noted that persons who became ill did not have to be in close contact with each other to acquire the disease. In Yunnan, Chinainhabitants would flee from their homes as soon as they saw dead rats, and on the island of Formosa Taiwanresidents considered the handling of dead rats heightened the risks of developing plague.
These observations led him to suspect that the flea might be an intermediary factor in the transmission of plague, since people acquired plague only if they were in contact with recently dead rats, that had died less than 24 hours before. In a now classic experiment, Simond demonstrated My Little Secret - Yersinia Pestis - Sector Alpha a healthy rat died of plague, after infected fleas had Dancing With The Source (Tambura Version) - Borislav Slavov - Divinity: Original Sin 2 (File, Album) to it, from a rat which had recently died of the plague.
Inthe emergence and spread of the pathogen during the Neolithic Decline as far back as 6, years ago was published. DNA evidence published in indicates Y. Three main strains are recognised: Y. Plague causes a blockage in the proventriculus of the flea by forming a biofilm. The presence of a biofilm seems likely to be required for stable infection of the flea. In Septemberthe death of Malcolm Casadabana molecular genetics professor at the University of Chicagowas linked to his work on a weakened laboratory strain of Y.
Inthe first genome of Y. InCell published results from a study of ancient graves. Plasmids of Y. On September 8,the Y. The human remains were found to be victims of the Great Plague of Londonwhich lasted from to On January 15,researchers Inner Sanctum: Birdsong For A Murderer, CBS Radio - Boris Karloff - In The Inner Sanctum: Mayhem B the University of Oslo and the University of Ferrara suggested that humans and their parasites were the biggest carriers of the plague.
Two cases of pneumonic plague were diagnosed at a hospital in Beijing's Chaoyang district on 13 Novemberprompting fears of an outbreak. Doctors diagnosed a middle-aged man with fever, who My Little Secret - Yersinia Pestis - Sector Alpha complained of difficulty breathing for some ten days, accompanied by his wife with similar symptoms. The patient received treatment and 28 symptomless contacts were placed in quarantine.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Y. Main article: Plague vaccine. University of Connecticut. Archived from the original on 12 September Sherris Medical Microbiology 4th ed. McGraw Hill. Retrieved 11 December A pest in the land: new world epidemics in a global perspective.
University of New Mexico Press. PLoS Pathogens. Lay summary — ScienceDaily May 10, CBC News. The New York Times. Retrieved November 1, December Nature Genetics.
Immun Infekt. Perspect Biol Med. Baron S; et al. PasteurellaYersiniaand Francisella. In: Baron's Medical Microbiology 4th ed.
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