So Far Away - Various - Mysterious Neighbour - The Mars Project Vol. II
Label: CUE-Records - CUE-112 • Format: CD Compilation, Sampler • Country: Germany • Genre: Electronic • Style: Berlin-School
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury. In English, Mars carries a So Far Away - Various - Mysterious Neighbour - The Mars Project Vol. II of the Roman god of war and is often referred to as the ' Red Planet '. The days and seasons are likewise comparable to those of Earth, because the rotational period as well as the tilt of the rotational axis relative to the ecliptic plane are very similar.
Mars is the site of Olympus Monsthe largest volcano and highest known mountain in the Solar Systemand of Valles Marinerisone of the largest canyons in the Solar System. These may be captured asteroids  similar to Eurekaa Mars trojan. There are ongoing investigations assessing the past habitability potential of Mars, as well as the possibility of extant life. Future astrobiology missions are planned, including the Mars and Rosalind Franklin rovers.
The volume of water detected has been estimated to be equivalent to the volume of water in Lake Superior. Mars can easily be seen from Earth with the naked eye, as can its reddish coloring. Mars is approximately half the diameter of Earth, with a surface area only slightly less than the total area of Earth's dry land.
The red-orange appearance of the Martian surface is caused by iron III oxideor rust. Like Earth, Mars has differentiated into a dense metallic core overlaid by less dense materials. Besides So Far Away - Various - Mysterious Neighbour - The Mars Project Vol.
II and oxygen, the most abundant elements in the Martian crust are iron, magnesiumaluminumcalciumand potassium. Mars is a terrestrial planet that consists of minerals containing silicon and oxygenmetalsand other elements that typically make up rock. The surface of Mars is primarily composed of tholeiitic basalt although parts are more silica -rich than typical basalt and may be similar to andesitic rocks on Earth or silica glass.
Regions of low albedo suggest concentrations of plagioclase feldsparwith northern low albedo regions displaying higher than normal concentrations of sheet silicates and high-silicon glass. Parts of the southern highlands include detectable amounts of high-calcium pyroxenes.
Localized concentrations of hematite and olivine have been found. Although Mars has no evidence of a structured global magnetic field observations show that parts of the planet's crust have been magnetized, suggesting that alternating polarity reversals of its dipole field have occurred in the past. This paleomagnetism of magnetically susceptible minerals is similar to the alternating bands found on Earth's ocean floors. One theory, published in and re-examined in October with the help of the Mars Global Surveyoris that these bands suggest plate tectonic activity So Far Away - Various - Mysterious Neighbour - The Mars Project Vol.
II Mars four billion years ago, before the planetary dynamo ceased to function and the planet's magnetic field faded. It is thought that, during the Solar System's formationMars was created as the result of a stochastic process Youngest Buddle - Excusers - No Excusers run-away accretion of material from the protoplanetary disk that orbited the Sun.
Mars has many distinctive chemical features caused by its position in the Solar System. Elements with comparatively low boiling points, such as chlorinephosphorusand sulphurare much more common on Mars than Earth; these elements were probably pushed outward by the young Sun's Back In The U.S.S.R.
- Paul McCartney - Good Evening London (DVD, Album) solar wind. After the formation of the planets, all were subjected to the so-called " Late Heavy Bombardment ". The geological history of Mars can be split into many periods, but the following are the three primary periods:  .
Geological activity is still taking place on Mars. The Athabasca Valles is home to sheet-like lava flows created about Mya. Water flows in the grabens called the Cerberus Fossae occurred less than 20 Mya, indicating equally recent volcanic intrusions. The Phoenix lander returned data showing Martian soil to be slightly alkaline and containing elements such as magnesiumsodiumpotassium and chlorine.
These nutrients are found in soils on Earth, and they are necessary for growth of plants. Streaks are common across Mars and new ones appear frequently on steep slopes of craters, troughs, and valleys. The streaks are dark at first and get lighter with age.
The streaks can start in a tiny area, then spread out for hundreds of metres. They have been seen to follow the edges of boulders and other obstacles in their path. The commonly Saint Stephen - The Grateful Dead - Live/Dead theories include that they are dark underlying layers of soil revealed after avalanches of bright dust or dust devils.
Radar data The Winter Wheel - Art Bears - 25 Songs: Winter Songs / The World As It Is Today Mars Express and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter show large quantities of ice at both poles July   and at middle latitudes November Landforms visible on Mars strongly suggest that liquid water has existed on the planet's surface.
Huge linear swathes of scoured ground, known as outflow channelscut across the surface in about 25 places. These are thought to be a record of erosion caused by the catastrophic release of water from subsurface aquifers, though some of these structures have been hypothesized to result from the action of glaciers or lava.
It is thought to have been carved by flowing water early in Mars's history. Features of these valleys and their distribution strongly imply that they were carved by runoff resulting from precipitation in early Mars history. Subsurface water flow and groundwater sapping may play important subsidiary roles in some networks, but precipitation was probably the root cause of the incision in almost all cases. Along crater and canyon walls, there are thousands of features that appear similar to terrestrial gullies.
A number of authors have suggested that their formation process involves liquid water, probably from melting ice,   although others have argued for formation mechanisms involving carbon dioxide frost or the movement of dry dust.
Further evidence that liquid water once existed on the surface of Mars comes from the detection of specific minerals such as hematite and goethiteboth of which sometimes form in the presence of water. This forms only in the presence of acidic water, which demonstrates that water once existed on Mars. Inradar data revealed the presence of large quantities of water ice at the poles  and at mid-latitudes. The Phoenix lander directly sampled water ice in shallow Martian soil on July 31, On March 18,NASA reported evidence from instruments on the Curiosity rover of mineral hydrationlikely hydrated calcium sulfatein several rock samples including the broken fragments of "Tintina" rock and "Sutton Inlier" rock as well as in veins and nodules in other rocks like "Knorr" rock and "Wernicke" rock.
Researchers suspect that much of the low northern plains of the planet were covered with an ocean hundreds of meters deep, though this remains controversial. This finding was derived from the ratio of water to deuterium in the modern Martian atmosphere compared to that ratio on Earth. The amount of Martian deuterium is eight times the amount that exists on Earth, suggesting that ancient Mars had significantly higher levels of water.
Results from the Curiosity rover had previously found a high ratio of deuterium in Gale Craterthough not significantly high enough to suggest the former presence of an ocean. Other scientists caution that these results have not been confirmed, and point out that Martian climate models have not yet shown that the planet was warm enough in the past to support bodies So Far Away - Various - Mysterious Neighbour - The Mars Project Vol.
II liquid water. Near the northern polar cap is the Mars has two permanent polar ice caps. These seasonal actions transport large amounts of dust and water vapor, giving rise to Earth-like frost and large cirrus clouds.
Clouds of water-ice were photographed by the Opportunity rover in Frozen carbon dioxide accumulates as a comparatively thin layer about one metre thick on the north cap in the northern winter only, whereas the south cap has a permanent dry ice cover about eight metres thick. This permanent dry ice cover at the south pole is peppered by flat floored, shallow, roughly circular pitswhich repeat imaging shows are expanding by meters per year; this suggests that the permanent CO 2 cover over the south pole water ice is degrading over time.
The seasonal frosting of areas near the southern ice cap results in the formation of transparent 1-metre-thick slabs of dry ice above the ground. With the arrival of spring, sunlight warms the subsurface and pressure from subliming CO 2 builds up under a slab, elevating and ultimately rupturing it.
This leads to geyser-like eruptions of CO 2 gas mixed with dark basaltic sand or dust. This process is rapid, observed happening in the space of a few days, weeks or months, a rate of change rather unusual in geology — especially for Mars.
The gas rushing underneath a slab to the site of a geyser carves a spiderweb-like pattern of radial channels under the ice, the process being the inverted equivalent of an erosion network formed by water draining through a single plughole. They began by establishing that most of Mars's surface features were permanent and by more precisely determining the planet's rotation period.
Today, features on Mars are named from a variety of sources. Albedo features are named for classical mythology. Large valleys are named for the word "Mars" or "star" in various languages; small valleys are named for rivers. Large albedo features retain many of the older names, but are often updated to reflect new knowledge of the nature of the features.
The paler plains covered with dust and sand rich in reddish iron oxides were once thought of as Martian "continents" and given names like Arabia Terra land of Arabia or Amazonis Planitia Amazonian plain. The largest dark feature seen from Earth is Syrtis Major Planum. After the spacecraft Mariner 9 provided extensive imagery of Mars ina small crater later called Airy-0located in the Sinus Meridiani "Middle Bay" or "Meridian Bay"was chosen for the definition of 0.
Because Mars has no oceans and hence no " sea level ", a zero-elevation surface had to be selected as a reference level; this is called the areoid  of Mars, analogous to Alves Noto - Le Mille Bolle Blu (Flexi-disc) terrestrial geoid.
For mapping purposes, the United States Geological Survey divides the surface of Mars into thirty cartographic quadrangleseach named for a classical albedo feature it contains. The quadrangles can be seen and explored via the interactive image map below.
The dichotomy of Martian topography is striking: northern plains flattened by lava flows contrast with the southern highlands, pitted and cratered by ancient impacts. Research in has presented evidence regarding a theory proposed in postulating that, four billion years ago, the northern hemisphere of Mars was struck by an object one-tenth to two-thirds the size of Earth's Moon.
Mars is located closer to the asteroid beltso it has an increased chance of being struck by materials from that source. Mars is more likely to be struck by short-period cometsi.
Martian craters can have a morphology that suggests the ground became wet after the meteor impacted. The shield volcano Olympus Mons Mount Olympus is an extinct volcano in the vast upland region Tharsiswhich contains several other large volcanoes. Olympus Mons is roughly three times the height of Mount Everestwhich in comparison stands at just over 8.
The length of Valles Marineris is equivalent to the length of Europe and extends across one-fifth the circumference of Mars.
Valles Marineris was formed due to the swelling of the Tharsis area, which caused the crust in the area of Valles Marineris to collapse. Because light does not reach the floor of most of the caves, it is possible that they extend much deeper than these lower estimates and widen below the surface.
The interiors of these caverns may be protected from micrometeoroids, UV radiation, solar flares and high energy particles that bombard the planet's surface. Compared to Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is quite rarefied. The resulting mean surface pressure is only 0. The scale height of the atmosphere is about Methane has been detected in the Martian atmosphere ;   it occurs in extended plumes, and the profiles imply that the methane is released from discrete regions.
The concentration of methane fluctuates from about 0. Estimates of its lifetime Quicksand - Various - Ere!
Your Horse Dropped This. Splat! #2 from 0. Methane could be produced by non-biological process such as serpentinization involving water, carbon dioxide, and the mineral olivinewhich is known to be common on Mars. But even if rover missions determine that microscopic Martian life is the source of the methane, the life So Far Away - Various - Mysterious Neighbour - The Mars Project Vol.
II likely reside far below the surface, outside of the rover's reach. Inthe European Space Agency's Mars Express found an ultraviolet glow coming from "magnetic umbrellas" in the southern hemisphere. Mars does not have a global magnetic field which guides charged particles entering the atmosphere. Mars has multiple umbrella-shaped magnetic fields mainly in the southern hemisphere, which are remnants of a global field that decayed billions of years ago.
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