Soul Food - Various - Scratch Masters 2
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Soul food is a variety of cuisine originating in the Southeastern United Statesand from African and African American culture. It is common in areas with a historical presence of African Americans and has been a cultural staple among the African American and American Deep-South communities for centuries. The expression "soul food" originated in the mids, when " soul " was a common word used to describe African American culture.
The term soul food became popular in the s and s in the midst of the Black Power movement. Soul food restaurants were Black-owned businesses that served as neighborhood meeting places where people socialized and ate together.
The origins of recipes considered soul food can be traced back to before slavery, as African. Many of the foods integral to the cuisine originate from the limited rations given to slaves by their planters and masters. Slaves were typically given a Love M.D.
- Tony Joe White - Closer To The Truth of cornmeal and pounds of pork per week, and from those rations come soul food staples such as cornbread, fried catfish, barbecued ribs, chitterlings, and Soul Food - Various - Scratch Masters 2 . Slaves needed to eat foods with high amounts of calories to balance out spending long days working in the fields.
This led to time-honored soul food traditions like frying foods, breading meats and fishes with cornmeal, and mixing meats with vegetables e. Impoverished whites and blacks in the South cooked many of the same dishes stemming from the soul tradition, but styles of preparation sometimes varied. Certain techniques popular in soul and Southern cuisines i. Introduction of soul food to northern cities such as Washington D.
The 23rd President of the United States Benjamin Harrison, and former first lady Caroline Harrison, took this same route when they terminated their French cooking staff for a black woman by the name of Dolly Johnson.
One famous relationship includes the bond formed between President Lyndon B. Johnson and Zephyr Wright. Wright became a great influence to Johnson in fighting for civil rights as he saw her treatment and segregation as Soul Food - Various - Scratch Masters 2 would travel throughout the south. Johnson even had Wright present at the signing of several civil rights laws. With Public awareness of black Americans preparing food in the presidential kitchen, this in turn helped to sway minority votes for hopeful presidential candidates such as, John F.
Kennedy, and Ronald Reagan. From their cultures came one of the main staples of the Southern diet: corn maize — either ground into meal or limed with an alkaline salt to make hominyin a Native American process known as nixtamalization. Many fruits are available in this region: blackberriesmuscadinesraspberriesand many other wild berries were part of Southern Native Americans' diets, as well.
To a far greater degree than anyone realizes, Soul Food - Various - Scratch Masters 2 of the most important food dishes that the Native Americans of the southeastern U.
A live on today is the "soul food" eaten by both Black and White Southerners. Hominy, for example, is still eaten: Soul Food - Various - Scratch Masters 2 lives on as grits; cornbread [is] used Soul Food - Various - Scratch Masters 2 Southern cooks; Indian fritters -- variously known as "hoe cake" or "Johnny cake"; Indian boiled cornbread is present in Southern cuisine as "corn meal dumplings" and "hush puppies"; Southerners cook their beans and field peas by boiling them, as did the Native tribes; and, like the Native Americans, Southerners cured their meats and smoked it over hickory coals Both Africans and Native Americans of the American South supplemented their diets with meats derived from the hunting of native game.
Common game included opossumsrabbitsand squirrels. Livestockadopted from Europeans, in the form of cattle and hogswere kept. When game or livestock was killed, the entire animal was used. Aside from the meat, it was common for them to eat organ meats such as brainsliversand intestines. This tradition remains today in hallmark dishes like chitterlings commonly called chit'linswhich are fried small intestines of hogs ; livermush a common dish in the Carolinas made from hog liver ; and pork brains and eggs.
The fat of the animals, particularly hogs, was rendered and used for cooking and frying. Many of the early European settlers in the South learned Native American cooking methods, and so cultural diffusion was set in motion for the Southern dish. Scholars have noted the substantial African influence found in soul food recipes, especially from the West and Central regions of Africa. This influence can be seen through the heat level of many soul food dishes, as well as many ingredients found within them.
These include pigeon peasblack-eyed peasmany leafy greens, and sorghum. There are many documented parallels between the foodways of West Africans and soul food recipes. The frequent consumption of cornbread by African-Americans is analogous to West Africans' use of fufu to soak up stews. This included the way food was prepared as well as served. It was not uncommon to see food served out of an empty gourd. Many techniques to change the overall flavor of staple food items such as nuts, seeds, and rice contributed to added dimensions of evolving flavors.
These techniques included roasting, frying with palm oil, baking in ashes, and steaming in leaves such as banana leaf. Because it was illegal in many states for slaves to learn to read or write, soul food recipes and cooking techniques tended to be passed along orally, until after emancipation.
The first soul food cookbook is attributed to Abby Fisherentitled What Mrs. Good Things to Eat was published in ; the author, Rufus Soul Food - Various - Scratch Masters 2 , was a former slave who worked for the Pullman railway car service. Many other cookbooks were written by Black Americans during that time, but as they were not widely distributed, most are now lost. Since the midth century, many cookbooks highlighting soul food and African-American foodways have been compiled and published.
One notable soul food chef is celebrated traditional Southern chef and author Edna Lewis who released a series of books between andincluding A Taste of Country Cooking in which she weaves stories of her childhood in Freetown, Virginia into her recipes for "real Southern food". Its focus on spontaneity in the kitchen—cooking by "vibration" rather than precisely measuring ingredients, as well as " making do " with ingredients on hand—captured the essence of traditional African-American cooking techniques.
The simple, healthful, basic ingredients of lowcountry cuisine, like shrimpoysterscrabfresh produce, rice and sweet potatoesmade it a bestseller.
Usher boards and Women's Day committees of various religious congregations large and small, and even public service and social welfare organizations such as the National Council Soul Food - Various - Scratch Masters 2 Negro Women NCNW have produced cookbooks to fund their operations and charitable enterprises. Soul food originated in the southern region of the US and is consumed by African-Americans across the nation.
Traditional soul food cooking is seen as one of the ways enslaved Africans passed their traditions to their descendants once they were brought to the US, and is a cultural creation stemming from slavery and Native American and European influences.
The bountiful vegetables that were found in Africa, were substituted in dishes down south with new leafy greens consisting of dandelion, turnip, and beet Try To Remember - The Ray Charles Singers - Young Lovers On-Broadway. Pork, more specifically Hog became introduced into several dishes in the form of cracklins from the skin, pig's feet, chitterlings, and lard used to increase the fat intake into vegetarian dishes.
Spices such as thyme, and bay leaf blended with onion and garlic gave dishes their own characteristics. The magazine Ebony Jr! Soul food is frequently found at religious rituals and social events such Only You - Christer Sjögren - Allra Bästa! funerals, fellowship, Thanksgiving, and Christmas in the Black community. Soul food has been the subject of many popular culture creations such as the filmthen turned television series Soul Foodas well the eponymous rap album released by Goodie Mob.
Soul food prepared traditionally and consumed in large amounts can be detrimental to one's health. Opponents to soul food have been vocal about health concerns surrounding the culinary traditions since the name was coined in the mid-twentieth century. Soul food has been criticized for its high starchfatsodiumcholesteroland caloric contentas well as the inexpensive and often low-quality nature of the ingredients such as salted pork and cornmeal.
In light of this, soul food has been implicated by some in the No Amen - Eric Serra - Joan Of Arc (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack) high rates of high blood pressure hypertensiontype 2 diabetesclogged arteries atherosclerosisstrokeand heart attack suffered by African-Americans.
Figures who led discussions surrounding the negative impacts of soul food include Dr. A foundational difference in how health is perceived of being Orchard In The Studio - Globus - Live At Wembley (A Concert Film) (DVD) is that soul food may differ from 'traditional' styles is the widely different structures of agriculture.
Fueled by federal subsidies, the agricultural system in the United States became industrialized as the nutritional value of most processed foods, and not just those implicated in a traditional perception of soul food, have degraded. An important aspect of the preparation of soul food was the reuse of cooking lard. Because many cooks could not afford to buy new shortening to replace what they Soul Food - Various - Scratch Masters 2 , they would pour the liquefied cooking grease into a container.
After cooling completely, the grease re-solidified and could be used again the next time the cook required lard. With changing fashions and perceptions of "healthy" eating, some cooks may So A Echter Boarischer Bua - Maxl Graf - Sterne Unserer Heimat preparation methods that differ from those of cooks who came before them: using liquid oil like vegetable oil or canola oil for frying and cooking; and, using smoked turkey instead of porkfor example.
Changes in hog farming techniques have also resulted in drastically leaner pork, in the 21st and late 20th centuries. Some cooks have even adapted recipes to Soul Food - Various - Scratch Masters 2 vegetarian alternatives to traditional ingredients, including tofu and soy -based analogues.
Several of the ingredients included in soul food recipes have pronounced health benefits. Collard and other greens are rich sources of several vitamins including vitamin AB 6folic acid or vitamin B 9vitamin Kand Cminerals manganeseironand calciumfiberand small amounts of omega-3 fatty acids.
They also contain a number of phytonutrientswhich are thought to play a role in the prevention of ovarian and breast cancers.
This water is often consumed and is known as pot liquor. Peas and legumes are inexpensive sources of protein ; they also contain important vitamins, minerals, and fiber. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Class Struggle - SS-20 - More Government Now other uses, see Soul food disambiguation. This article may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. Please help improve it by rewriting it in a balanced fashion that contextualizes different points of view.
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Christmas Thanksgiving. Main article: List of soul foods and dishes. United States portal Food portal. University of Minnesota Press. American Studies International. Bower, Anne L. University of Illinois Press. Chambers, Douglas B. The Past Is Not Dead. Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi.