Szolgaságból Szolgaságba / From Slavery To Slavery - Jack (28) - Inhumanus
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Slavery Romanian : sclavie existed on the territory of present-day Romania from before the founding of the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia in 13th—14th century, until it was abolished in stages during the s and s, and also untilin Transylvania and Bukovina parts of the Habsburg Monarchy. Most of the slaves were of Roma Gypsy [ when? Particularly in Sher - Kroke - Eden there were also slaves of Tatar ethnicity, probably prisoners captured from the wars with the Nogai and Crimean Tatars.
The slaves were owned by the boyarsthe Christian Orthodox monasteries, or the state. Initially, they were used only as smiths, gold panners and as agricultural workers, but when the principalities became more urbanized, increasingly more of them were used as domestic workers. The abolition of slavery was carried out following a campaign by young revolutionaries who embraced the liberal ideas of the Enlightenment.
Inthe Wallachian state freed the slaves it owned and byin both principalities, all the categories of slaves had been freed. Following the abolition, there were attempts both of the state and private initiatives to sedentize the nomads and to integrate the Roma people into the Romanian society, but they had a rather limited success. The exact origins of slavery in the Danubian Principalities are not known.
Historian Nicolae Iorga associated the Roma people's arrival with the Mongol invasion of Europe and considered their slavery as a vestige of that era, the Romanians taking the Roma from the Mongols as slaves and preserving their status. While it is possible that some Romani people were slaves or auxiliary troops of the Mongols or Tatars, the bulk of them came from south of the Danube at the end of the 14th century, some time after the foundation of Wallachia.
By then, the institution of slavery was already established in Moldavia and possibly in both principalities,  but the arrival of the Roma made slavery a widespread practice. The Tatar slaves, smaller in numbers, were eventually merged into the Roma population. Slavery was a common practice in Eastern Europe at the time see Slavery in medieval Europe.
Non-Christians in particular were taken as slaves in Christian Europe: in the Kingdom of HungarySaracens Muslims and Jewish Khazars were held as slaves Szolgaságból Szolgaságba / From Slavery To Slavery - Jack (28) - Inhumanus they were forced to Szolgaságból Szolgaságba / From Slavery To Slavery - Jack (28) - Inhumanus to Christianity in the 13th century; Russians enslaved the prisoners captured from the Tatars see Kholopbut their status eventually merged with the one of the serfs.
There is some debate over whether the Romani people came to Wallachia and Moldavia as free men or as slaves. In the Byzantine Empirethey were slaves of the state and it seems the situation was the same in Bulgaria and Serbia until their social organization was destroyed by the Ottoman conquest, which would suggest that they came as slaves who had a change of "ownership". Panaitescuwas that following the Crusadesan important East-West trade route passed through the Romanian states and the local feudal lords enslaved the Roma for economic gain for lack of other craftsmen.
However, this theory is undermined by the fact that slavery was present before the trade route gained importance. Historian Neagu Djuvara also supposes that Roma groups came into the two countries as free individuals and were enslaved by the hospodars and the landowning boyar elite. Anthropologist Sam Beck argues that the origins of Roma slavery can be most easily explained in the practice of taking prisoners of war as slaves, a practice with a long history in the region, and that, initially, free and enslaved Roma coexisted on what became Romanian territory.
There are some accounts according to which some of the Roma slaves had been captured during wars. For instance, inVlad Dracul took by force from Bulgaria to Wallachia around 11, people "who looked like Egyptians ", presumably Roma.
The Danubian Principalities were for most of their history the only territory in Eastern and Central Europe where Roma slavery was legislated, and the place where Szolgaságból Szolgaságba / From Slavery To Slavery - Jack (28) - Inhumanus was most extended. Traditionally, Roma slaves were divided into three categories. Another category was the Aurari or Rudari gold minerswho were slaves of the Prince who panned for gold during the warm season in the mountain rivers of the Carpathians, while staying in the plains during the winter, carving wooden utensils.
The gold miners, through their yield of gold, brought much more income to the treasury than the other types of slaves and initially they were in large numbers, but as the deposits became exhausted, their number dropped.
Bythere were only Aurari panning for gold in Wallachia. During the 14th and 15th centuries very few slaves were found in the cities. Only since the beginning of the 16th century, monasteries began opening in the cities and they brought with them the Roma slaves and soon boyars and even townfolks began to use them for various tasks.
In addition to holding an enslaved population of native Roma, the countries were, for a brief interval during the early 18th century, a transit route, through which the Ottoman slave Szolgaságból Szolgaságba / From Slavery To Slavery - Jack (28) - Inhumanus joined the African trade with markets within the Tsardom of Russia. The slaves were considered personal property of the master,  who was allowed to put them to work, selling them or exchanging them for other goods and the possessions of the slaves usually cattle were also at the discretion of the master.
A dispute followed, after which the boyars received permission to carry on with the beatings, as long as they exercised them on private property. The social prestige of a slave master was often proportional to the number and kinds of skilled slaves in his possession, outstanding cooks and embroiderers being used to symbolically demonstrate the high status of the boyar families. In the Principalities, the slaves were governed by common law.
If a slave owned property, one would have to pay the same taxes as the free men. On the occasion, each individual over the age of 15 was required to pay a sum of between thirty and forty piastres.
A slaveowner had the power to free his slaves for good service, either during his lifetime or in his will, but these cases were rather rare. The other way around also happened: free Roma sold themselves to monasteries or boyars in order to make a living.
The disputes with non-slaves and the manslaughter Sin Dormir - Los Intocables - Intocables were dealt by the state judiciary system.
A freeman killing a slave was also liable for death penalty and a boyar was not allowed to kill his own slaves, but no such sentencing is attested. The Orthodox Aria Dacă Vrei,Poți Să Rîzi Ușor - Vali Niculescu / Constanța Cîmpeanu - Arii Din Operete, itself a major slaveholder, did not contest the institution of slavery,  although among the early advocates of the abolition was Eufrosin Potecaa priest.
Like many of the serfs in the two principalities, slaves were prone to escape from the estates and seek a better life on other domains or abroad, which made boyars organize search parties and make efforts to have them return. Occasionally, the Hospodars organized expeditions abroad in order to find runaways, or through diplomacy, they appealed to the rulers of the lands where the runaways settled.
In the 16th century, the duties of collecting wartime tithes and of retrieving runaways were performed by a category called globnicimany of whom were also slaves. A small section of the native Roma population managed to evade the system Szolgaságból Szolgaságba / From Slavery To Slavery - Jack (28) - Inhumanus by not having been originally enslaved as a group, or by regrouping runaway slaves.
Djuvara argues that this was because their economic patterns were at a hunter-gatherer stage. The project was reputedly abandoned after Sturdza realised he was inflicting intense suffering on his employees.
Roma artisans were occasionally allowed to practice their trade outside the boyar household, in exchange for their own revenue. Marriage between two slaves was only allowed with the approval of the two owners, usually through a financial agreement which resulted in the selling of one slave to the other owner or through an exchange. The slaveowners separated Roma couples when selling one of the spouses. This practice was banned by Constantine Mavrocordatos in and discouraged by the Orthodox Church, which decreed in that "although they are called gypsies [i.
Marriage between a free person and a slave was initially possible only by the free person becoming a slave,  although later on, it was possible for a free person to keep one's social status and that the children resulting from the marriage to be free people. In Moldavia, inprince Alexander Mourousis banned marriages between free people and slaves.
A similar chrysobull was decreed by Alexandru Mavrocordat Firaris inSzolgaságból Szolgaságba / From Slavery To Slavery - Jack (28) - Inhumanus not only banned such marriages, but invalidated any such existing marriage. In Wallachia, Alexander Ypsilantis — banned mixed marriages in his law code, but the children resulting from such marriages were to be born free. Marital relations between Roma Christmas Medley - Stan Kenton - From The Creative World Of Stan Kenton Comes.
A Merry Christmas! and the majority ethnic Romanian population were rare, due to the difference in status and, as Djuvara notes, to an emerging form of racial prejudice.
The slavery of the Roma in bordering Transylvania was found especially in the fiefs and areas under the influence of Wallachia and Moldavia, these areas keeping their practice of slavery even after they were no longer under Wallachian or Moldavian possession. The deed was also confirmed in by Prince Michael I Apafi. The estates belonging to the Bran Castle also held a large number of slaves, around at the beginning of the 16th century, the right of being a slaveholder being probably inherited from the time that the castle was owned by Wallachia.
InBukovinathe scene of the incidents, was annexed from Bayou Pon Pon - Various - 14 Cajun Hits by the Habsburgs, and inherited the practice of slavery, especially since the many monasteries in the region held a large number of Roma slaves. The number of Roma living in Bukovina was estimated in at families, or 4.
The order met the opposition of the large slaveholders: the Romanian Orthodox monasteries and the boyars. The boyars loudly pleaded their case to the authorities of Bukovina and Galiciaarguing that the banning of slavery was a transgression against the autonomy and traditions of the province, that bondage is the appropriate state for the Roma and that it was for their own good.
Many of the "new peasants" as they were called in some documents remained to work for the Babe Its Up To You - Smokie - MP3 Collection Часть 2 for which they were slaves, the liberation bringing little immediate change in their life.
After the eastern half of Moldavia, known as Bessarabiawas annexed by the Russian Empire in and later set up Bad Boy - Various - African Rebel Music - Roots Reggae And Dancehall a Bessarabia Governoratethe slave status for the Roma was kept.
Slavery was legislated in the "Establishment of the organisation of the province of Bessarabia" act ofby which the Roma Szolgaságból Szolgaságba / From Slavery To Slavery - Jack (28) - Inhumanus a social category divided into state slaves and private slaves, which belonged to boyars, clergy or traders.
Two villages were created in Southern BessarabiaCair and Faraonovca now both in Ukraine by settling Roma families. However, things RocknRoll Rebel - Ozzy Osbourne - Bark At The Moon not go as expected, the state of the villages "sank to deplorable levels" and their inhabitants refused to pay any taxes.
Slavery, together with serfdom, was only abolished by the emancipation laws of As a consequence, the slaves became peasants, continuing to work for their former masters or joining the nomadic Roma craftsmen and musicians.
The Roma slaves were not included in the tax censuses and as such, there are no reliable statistics about them, the exception being the slaves owned by the state.
Nevertheless, there were several 19th century estimates. The moral and social problems posed by Roma slavery were first acknowledged during the Age of Enlightenmentfirstly by Western European visitors to the two countries. According to Romanian Djuvara: "There is no foreign visitor not to have been horrified by the sight of Gypsies in the Principalities. The evolution of Romanian society and the abolition of serfdom [ when? It was only when the Phanariote regime was changed, soon afterthat Romanian society began to modernise itself and various reforms were implemented see Regulamentul Organic.
However, the slavery of the Roma was not considered a priority and it was ignored by most reformers. Nevertheless, the administration in the Danubian Principalities did try to change the status of the state Romas, by attempting the sedentarization of the nomads.
The regulations attempted to sedenterize the Romas and train them till the land, encouraging them to settle on private estates. By the late s, liberal and radical boyars, many of whom studied in Western Europe, particularly in Paris,  had taken the first steps toward the anti-slavery goal. The emancipation of slaves owned by the state and Romanian Orthodox and Greek Orthodox monasteries was mentioned in the programme of the confederative conspiracy of Leonte Radu in Moldavia, giving them equal rights with the Romanians.
Slavery had been abolished in most of the "civilized world" and, as such, the liberal Romanian intelligentsia viewed its slavery as a barbaric practice, with a feeling of shame. During the s, Cut My Skin - Future Sold Out intellectuals began a campaign aimed at convincing the slaveholders to free their slaves.
The earliest law which freed a category of slaves was in March in Wallachia, which transferred the control of the state slaves owned by the prison authority to the local authorities, leading to their sedentarizing and becoming peasants.
A year later, inMoldavian Prince Mihail Sturdza proposed a law on the freeing of slaves owned by the church and state. During the Wallachian Revolution ofthe agenda of the short-lived Provisional Government included the emancipation dezrobire Voices - Cry - Jackpot the Roma as one of the main social demands.
Some boyars freed their slaves without asking for compensation, while others strongly fought against the idea of abolition.
Nevertheless, after the revolution was quelled by Ottoman and Imperial Russian troops, the slaves returned to their previous status. By the s, after its tenets were intensely popularized, the movement gained Szolgaságból Szolgaságba / From Slavery To Slavery - Jack (28) - Inhumanus from almost the whole of Romanian society, the issues of contention being the exact date of Roma freedom, and whether their owners would receive any form of compensation a measure which the abolitionists considered "immoral".
In Wallachia, only two months later, in Februarya similar law was adopted by the National Assembly paying a compensation of 10 galbeni for each slave, in stages over a number of years. The Romanian abolitionists debated on the future of the former slaves both before and after the laws were passed. Despite the good will of many abolitionists, the social integration of the former slaves was carried out only for a part of them, many of the Roma remaining outside the social organization of the Wallachian, Moldavian and later, Romanian society.
The social integration policies were generally left to be implemented by the local authorities. In some parts of the country, the nomadic Roma were settled in villages under the supervision of the local police, but across the country, Roma nomadism was not eliminated.
Support for the abolitionists was reflected in Romanian literature of the midth century. The issue of the Roma slavery became a theme in the literary works of various liberal and Romantic intellectuals, many of whom were active in the abolitionist camp. The topic of Roma slavery was taken up again by the arts in the early 21st century, being a subject explored by Radu Jude 's film Aferim! The Romanian abolitionist movement was also influenced by the much larger movement against Black slavery in the United States through press reports and through a translation of Harriet Beecher Stowe 's Uncle Tom's Cabin.
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