Dress - Various - Rockamerica Dec. 1992 (U-matic)
Label: Rockamerica - none • Format: U-matic Compilation, Promo • Country: US • Genre: Rock, Pop •
U-matic is an analogue recording videocassette format first shown by Sony in prototype in Octoberand introduced to the market in September It was among the first video formats to contain the videotape inside a cassette, as opposed to the various reel-to-reel or open-reel formats of the time.
Unlike most other cassette-based tape formats, the supply and take-up reels in the cassette turn in opposite directions during playback, fast-forward, and rewind: one reel would run clockwise while the other would run counter-clockwise. A locking mechanism integral to each cassette case secures the tape hubs during transportation to keep the tape wound tightly on the hubs.
Once the cassette is taken off the case, Dress - Various - Rockamerica Dec. 1992 (U-matic) hubs are free to spin. A spring-loaded tape cover door protects the tape from damage; when the cassette Dress - Various - Rockamerica Dec. 1992 (U-matic) inserted into the VCR, the door is released and is opened, enabling the VCR mechanism to spool the tape around the spinning video drum.
Accidental recording is prevented by the absence of a red plastic button fitted to a hole on the bottom surface of the tape; removal of the button disabled recording.
PanasonicVictor Co. Later models sported improvements such as chassis sized for EIA inch rack mounting, with sliding rack rails for compressed storage in broadcast environments, solenoid control mechanics, jog-shuttle knob, remote controls, Vertical Interval Time Code VITClongitudinal time code, internal Dress - Various - Rockamerica Dec. 1992 (U-matic) editing controls, "Slo-Mo" slow-motion playback, and Dolby audio noise reduction.
U-matic was named after the shape of the tape path when it was threaded around the helical scan video head drum, which resembled the letter U. Recording time was limited to one hour. At the introduction of U-Matic, Sony originally intended it to be a videocassette format oriented at the consumer market. This proved to be something of a failure, because of the high manufacturing cost and resulting retail price of the format's first VCRs. As a result, Sony shifted U-Matic's marketing to the industrial, professional, and educational sectors.
U-Matic saw even more success from the television broadcast industry in the mids, when a number of local TV stations and national TV networks used the format when its first portable model, the Sony VO, was released in This model ushered in the era of ENG, or Electronic News Gatheringwhich eventually made obsolete the previous 16mm film cameras normally used for on-location television news gathering.
Film required developing which took time, compared to the instantly available playback of videotape, making faster breaking news possible. U-matic is also available Lindaraja - Pour Deux Pianos - Debussy*, Michel Béroff - Oeuvres Pour Piano a smaller cassette size, officially known as U-Matic S.
To minimise weight and bulk in the field, portable recorders had an external AC power supply, or could be operated from rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries.
The price point of the VO series was oriented toward educational, corporate and industrial fields, featured unbalanced audio connectors, and did not typically include SMPTE time code although one or two companies offered after-market modification services to install longitudinal time code. The VO was largely metal, which made the unit heavy, but still technically portable.
The VO had the same functionality as the VO, but at a greatly reduced weight and size, by replacing many components with plastic. The VO added the improvement of a long, thin battery Dress - Various - Rockamerica Dec.
1992 (U-matic) "candy bars" that permitted storage of the batteries in a trouser pocket. The VO was the last of the portable VO series to be produced by Sony, and featured solenoid-controlled transport. The BVU enabled recording in the field but not playback, and the BVU permitted both recording and playback in the field.
Portable recorders I Enjoy Being A Girl - Rodgers And Hammerstein* / Barbara Carroll - Flower Drum Song connected to the camera with a multi-conductor cable terminated with multi-pin connectors on each end. Early studio and all portable U-Matic VCRs had a drawer-type mechanism which required the tape to be inserted, followed by manual closure of the drawer a Dress - Various - Rockamerica Dec.
1992 (U-matic) mechanism. Later studio VCRs accepted the cassette from a port opening and the cassette was pulled into and seated in the transport a "front-loading" mechanism.
S-format tapes could be played back in older top-loading standard U-Matic decks with the aid of an adapter the KCA-1 from Sony which fitted around an S-sized tape; newer front-loading machines can accept S-format tapes directly, as the tapes have a slot on the underside that rides along a tab.
U-Matic S tapes had a maximum recording time of 20 minutes, and large ones 1-hour, although some tape manufacturers such as 3M came out with minute S-tapes and minute large cassettes and DuPont even managed minute tapes  by using a thinner tape.
The BVU format had an improved colour recording system and lower noise levels. BVU gained immense popularity in ENG and location programme-making, spelling the end of 16 mm film in everyday production. SP had a horizontal resolution of lines. BVU series also added Dolby audio noise reduction. A recurring problem with the format was damage to the videotape caused by prolonged friction of the spinning video drum heads against a paused videotape. The drum would rub oxide off the tape or the tape would Dress - Various - Rockamerica Dec.
1992 (U-matic) when the damaged tape was played back, a horizontal line of distorted visual image would ascend in the frame, and audio would drop out. Manufacturers attempted to minimise this issue with schemes in which the tape would loosen around the spinning head or the head would stop spinning after resting in pause mode for a pre-determined period of time. The format video image also suffered from head-switching noise, a distortion of the image in which a section of video at the bottom of the video frame would be horizontally askew from the larger portion.
The format also had difficulty reproducing the colour redand red images would be noisier than other colours in the spectrum. For this reason, on-camera talent was discouraged from wearing red clothing that would call attention to the technical shortcoming. Copying video from one U-matic VCR to another compromised playback reliability, and levels of head-switching Show U Somethin - Peter Andre - Natural, chroma smearing, and chroma noise compounded with every generation.
These issues motivated videotape editors and engineers to use work-arounds to minimise this degradation. A time-base corrector TBC could be used to regenerate the sync tip portion of the video signal sent to the "recording" VCR, improving playback reliability.
The "dub" cable, more formally called "demodulated" or "demod" for shortwas a multi-conductor cable that circumvented a portion of the video circuitry, minimising amplification noise. Some TBCs had a drop-out compensation DOC circuit which would hold lines of video in temporary digital memory to compensate for oxide drop-out or wrinkle flaws in the videotape, however the DOC circuits required several cables and expert calibration for use.
U-matic tapes were also used for easy transport of filmed scenes for dailies in the days before VHS, DVD, and portable hard drives. Several movies have surviving copies in this form. The first rough cut of Apocalypse Nowfor example the raw version of what became Apocalypse Now Reduxsurvived on three U-Matic cassettes.
Audio quality was compromised due the use of longitudinal audio tape heads in combination with slow tape speed. Sony eventually implemented Dolby noise reduction circuitry using Dolby C to improve audio fidelity.
The film Noset in s Chile, used U-matic tape for filming. U-matic Dress - Various - Rockamerica Dec. 1992 (U-matic) also used for the storage of digital audio data. These devices accepted stereo analogue audio, digitised it, and generated "pseudo video" from the bits, storing 48 bits—three bit samples—as bright Dress - Various - Rockamerica Dec.
1992 (U-matic) dark regions along each scan line. On a monitor the "video" looked like vibrating checkerboard patterns. This could be recorded on a U-matic recorder.
This was the first system used for mastering audio compact discs in the early s. The famous compact disc On playback the Dress - Various - Rockamerica Dec. 1992 (U-matic) adapter converted the Dress - Various - Rockamerica Dec. 1992 (U-matic) and dark regions back to bits. End Of A Summers Day - Various - Piano Styles masters for audio CDs were made via laser from the PCM's digital output to a photoresist - or dye-polymer-coated disc.
This method was common until the mids. U-matic is no longer used as a mainstream television production format, but it has found lasting appeal as a cheap, well specified, and hard-wearing format. The format permitted many broadcast and non-broadcast institutions to produce television programming on an accessible budget, spawning programming distribution, classroom playback, etc.
At its peak popularity, U-matic recording and playback equipment was manufactured by Sony, Panasonic, JVC and Sharp, with many spin-off product manufacturers, such as video edit controllers, time base correctors, video production furniture, playback monitors and carts, etc.
Many television facilities the world over still have a U-matic recorder for archive playback Zdradziłaś Mnie - Oxford - Więc Chodź. material recorded in the s. For example, the Library of Congress facility in Culpeper, Virginia holds thousands of titles on U-matic video as Podnieś Ręce Wyżej - Various - Disco Polo Hits 22 means of providing access copies and proof for copyright deposit of old television broadcasts and films.
More than four decades after it was introduced, the format is still used for the menial tasks of the industry, being more highly specialised and suited to the needs of production staff than the domestic VHSalthough as time passes it has been replaced at the bottom of the tree of tape-based production formats by Betacam and Betacam SP as these in turn are replaced by Digital Betacam and HDCAM.
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Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. The name was derived from the U-shaped figure the tape followed when seen from above.
American Radio History. IEEE Xplore. Retrieved 8 June Retrieved 1 June Retrieved 22 August Goldwasser 7 October Archived from the original on 27 July The Hollywood Reporter.
Retrieved 5 December Video storage formats. P2 SxS MicroP2 Kinescope Electronicam kinescope s Electronic Video Recording Masaru Ibuka Akio Morita.
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