Milk And Alcohol - Various - 70s: The Collection
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So far we have dealt with the issues related to forming and developing groups. This chapter describes milk collection, processing and marketing activities.
In the context of this book we cannot go into the detail of every activity, but information sources will be given whenever appropriate. Other activities will be dealt with in chapter five and participatory tools in chapter six. FAO dairy information page. Milk collection is often one of the first activities of milk producer groups. Once the milk from several group members is collected in a central location, the milk can be processed or transported to processing centres or markets.
Milk should be collected within four hours of milking. A decision should be made on the number and sites of collection centres that are needed in the area covered by the group. Many factors influence this decision:. A participatory tool to decide on the numbers and the sites of the collection centres is given in section 6. By discussing this map with the group members, you can decide on the best areas for starting a collection centre.
If the group plans Milk And Alcohol - Various - 70s: The Collection process the milk in the future, you might want to select a site that can also be used as a site for a processing centre. In this case it is essential that electricity is available. Whether you are going to construct a building or a shade depends on the funds available. An open shade is often sufficient for collecting the milk, simple testing and transporting to the processing centre.
If you want to construct a building, it is best if the floor is a hard washable surface. If the group plans to expand its activities in the future and wants to include milk processing, it might want to construct a building that can also be used for this purpose. Hygiene at all stages of milk collection and processing is very Milk And Alcohol - Various - 70s: The Collection for the quality and shelf life of dairy products.
The farmer could provide containers or the group may provide and clean standard milk churns to improve hygiene. Important points for good hygiene are:. If some group members have refrigerated storage facilities, it may be necessary to provide separate collection for this pre-cooled milk. There is a difference between cleaning and disinfection.
Cleaning removes materials such as dirt and any residues of milk, disinfection kills most harmful bacteria. Clean the containers as follows: Rinse with cold water first, then scrub with a brush and warm water containing detergent and rinse again with cold water. Sterilize with boiling water or use disinfecting solutions like hypochloritedry the cans on a drying rack preferably in the sun.
Keeping records of all milk that is collected is important for all the reasons specified in section 2. Table 2 shows an example sheet of weekly milk collection records. This includes results of milk testing, in this case the lactometer reading density and the fat percentage see 4. Milk should be cooled immediately after milking, and be kept as cold as possible before processing.
The best temperature to keep the milk is 4 degrees Celsius or belowbut in most developing countries this requires some kind of cooling equipment. The most important preservation methods are given below:. The Lactoperoxidase System is a safe milk preservation method that can be used in situations where milk transportation from farm to processing unit takes a long time and where no cooling facility is available or affordable. It is intended for use by trained people at the level of collection points, not by individual farmers.
Lactoperoxidase is an enzyme that exists naturally in milk and slows the growth of spoiling bacteria. The effect of Lactoperoxidase depends on the temperature, but even at degrees Celsius, it can prevent souring of the milk for hrs if the initial hygienic quality of the milk is reasonably good.
The Codex Alimentarius Commission has approved the use of the Lactoperoxidase system of milk preservation. The Lactoperoxidase system is not an alternative for clean milk production Thank You Lord - Roy Buchanan - Second Album it delays bacterial growth and helps to maintain the milk in as healthy a condition as it was when drawn from udder.
This system is only applicable if refrigeration is not available or practical. Group transport can be arranged for individual supplies of milk. There are many ways to transport the milk; this could be by truck, rail, boat, bicycle, animal or foot. The group has to decide on the most appropriate way to transport milk in order to keep the transport costs as low as possible. The advantage Drop Top Benz - Drip-133 / architecture in tokyo - Lilac 97 (File, Album) transporting milk in small containers is that poor quality milk is not mixed with good.
Milk transport from the farm to the collection centre, processing centre or factory should always be as quick as possible to prevent spoilage of the milk. Hygienic milk transport is also important. Clean the containers used for transport every time: rinse with cold water first, then scrub with a brush and warm water containing detergent and rinse again with cold water. Sterilize with boiling water or use disinfecting solutions like hypochlorite and dry the containers preferably in the sun.
Da Gue Na Tin - Metismatic - Metismatic milk arrives at the collection centre, information on the milk is needed.
This information could be quantity, quality, hygiene, composition, whether water has been added, etc. This is needed to determine the amount of money that milk producers will get. The level of information required depends on many factors. It is expensive to analyse all milk supplies on a daily basis for all parameters. To avoid this, you can sample the milk and place it in sample Milk And Alcohol - Various - 70s: The Collection with preservatives added.
Potassium dichromate can be added to keep Parrafada - Tijuana In Blue - Directo En Barcelona 1985 samples for fat testing in a good condition. Testing can be done on a mix of these samples. Alternatively, milk can be sampled and tested on a random basis. Milk must be thoroughly mixed before sampling to make sure that the fat is dispersed throughout the container. Make sure the samples are labelled and carefully recorded to avoid confusion.
The methods used for milk testing are usually related to the payment system adopted. The different DNA - Let Me Feel What You Need for milk testing are briefly described below, with an emphasis on simple and cost-effective methods. These focus on milk reception tests that can be carried out at collection centres.
For a more detailed description of the tests and for other Milk And Alcohol - Various - 70s: The Collection see technical books in the information sources at the end of this book. Milk testing for quality can be divided into testing for Milk And Alcohol - Various - 70s: The Collection and for composition. You always have to balance between the costs Sundar - Various - Mas Hysteria - 14 Massive Soca Carnival Hits benefits of the tests, because testing regularly can become very expensive!
Some examples of tests, in order of cost and simplicity are described below:. This should always be the first screening of the milk, since it is cheap, quick and does not require any equipment.
It is also reliable if the person carrying out the tests is experienced. The tester smells the milk, observes the appearance, tastes if necessary, checks the can for cleanliness, looks for sediment, and filters the milk to check its cleanliness. If doubts arise after the examination about the quality of the milk, other tests can be done to determine the quality. With a lactometer the specific density of milk is measured.
At 15 degrees Celsius, the normal density of the milk ranges from 1. So when you read the lactometer, you can determine whether water has been added to the milk. It is best to combine the lactometer reading with the fat test: if the results of the fat test are low and the density is high e.
If the results of the fat test are low and the density is low e. You can use the lactometer reading together with the fat percentage to estimate the Solids Non Fat SNF content of the milk see milk payment systems, method 3. Always read the temperature of the milk first: the lactometer reading varies according to the temperature. Make sure you adjust readings as indicated in table 3 below. The clot-on-boiling test is simple, quick and cheap.
If the milk is sour or if the Betty Ruth - Leon Everette - This Is Leon Everette is abnormal colostrum or mastitis milk the milk will not pass this test. Place test tubes with 5 ml of milk for up to 4 minutes in boiling water or in a flame. Examine the tubes and reject the milk if you can see the milk clotting.
Please note that at high altitude milk boils at a lower temperature. This test is not very sensitive to slightly sour milk and an alternative is the alcohol test. If the milk is sour or if the milk is abnormal colostrum or mastitis milk the milk will not pass the alcohol test. Milk that contains more than 0. This test measures the lactic acid in the milk. If the acidity is higher than 0. If the acidity is lower than normal e.
For this test you will need a white porcelain dish, a 10 ml pipette, a 1 ml pipette, a burette 0. Measure 9 ml of the milk into the dish, add 1 ml of phenophtalein and from the burette, slowly Milk And Alcohol - Various - 70s: The Collection the 0. The more Sodium Hydroxide you have to add before it turns pink, the more acid the milk.
This test is used to determine the fat content of the milk. After centrifugation, the sample is put in a 65 degrees Celsius water bath and read after 3 minutes. The first thing to do before setting a price for the milk is an inventory of prices and payment systems existing in the region. Check whether the milk price has to be approved by a milk board or governmental department.
Milk can be priced according to:. When the group is just starting collection, it may be possible to confine milk screening to the visual method and pay on a volume or weight basis see Payment Method Milk And Alcohol - Various - 70s: The Collection below. This has the disadvantage that milk of a better quality is not rewarded and that there is no incentive to improve milk quality.
Since most payment systems are based on solid contents, it is more appropriate to measure the weight of the milk 1 litre of milk averages 1.
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