Locked Up - Various - Westwood The Invasion
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Brig Gen R. Deep in the recesses of the National Archives in Washington,D. Only a few Americans in were aware of the elaborate plans that had been prepared for the Allied Invasion of the Japanese home islands. Even fewer today are aware of the defenses the Japanese had prepared to counter the invasion had it been launched. Operation Downfall was finalized during the spring and summer of It called for two massive military undertakings to be carried out in succession and aimed at the heart of the Japanese Empire.
In the first invasion - code named Operation Olympic - American combat troops would land on Japan by amphibious assault during the early morning hours of November 1, - 50 years ago. Fourteen combat divisions of soldiers and Marines would land on heavily fortified and defended Kyushu, the southernmost of the Japanese home islands, after an unprecedented naval and aerial bombardment.
The preliminary invasion would began October 27 when the 40th Infantry Division would land on a series of small islands west and southwest of Kyushu. At the same time, the th Regimental Combat Team would invade and. The Eastern Assault Force consisting of the 25th, 33rd and 41st Infantry Divisions would land near Miyaski, at beaches called Austin, Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, Chrysler, and Ford, and move inland to attempt to capture the city and its nearby airfield.
On November 4, the Reserve Force, consisting of the 81st and 98th Infantry Divisions and the 11th Airborne Division, after feigning an attack of the island of Shikoku, would be landed -- if not needed elsewhere -- near Kaimondake, near the southernmost tip of Kagoshima Bay, at the beaches designated Locomobile, Lincoln, LaSalle, Hupmobile, Moon, Mercedes, Maxwell, Overland, Oldsmobile, Packard and Plymouth.
Olympic was not just a plan for invasion, but for conquest and occupation as well. It was expected to take four months to achieve its objective, with the three fresh American divisions per month to be landed in support of that operation if needed.
If all went well with OlympicCoronet would be launched March 1, Coronet would be twice the size of Olympicwith as many as 28 divisions landing on Honshu. All along the coast east of Tokyo, the American 1st Army would land the 5th, 7th, 27th, 44th, 86th, and 96th Infantry Divisions along with the 4th and 6th Marine Divisions.
At Sagami Bay, just south of Tokyo, the entire 8th and 10th Armies would strike north and east to clear the long western shore of Tokyo Bay and attempt to go as far as Yokohama. The assault troops landing south of Tokyo would be the 4th, 6th, 8th, 24th, 31st, 37th, 38th and 8th Infantry Divisions, along with the 13th and 20th Armored Divisions.
Captured Japanese documents and post war interrogations of Japanese military leaders disclose that information concerning the number of Japanese planes available for the defense of the home islands was dangerously in error. During the sea battle at Okinawa alone, Japanese kamakaze aircraft sank 32 Allied ships and damaged Locked Up - Various - Westwood The Invasion than others.
But during the summer ofAmerican top brass concluded that the Japanese had spent their air force since American bombers and fighters daily flew unmolested over Japan. What the military leaders did not know was that by the end of July the Japanese had been saving all aircraft, fuel, and pilots in reserve, and had been feverishly building new planes for the decisive battle for their homeland. As part of Ketsu-Go, the name for the plan to defend Japan -- the Japanese were building 20 suicide takeoff strips in southern Kyushu with Locked Up - Various - Westwood The Invasion hangars.
They also had 35 camouflaged airfields and nine seaplane bases. On the night before the expected invasion, 50 Japanese seaplane bombers, former carrier aircraft and 50 land based army planes were to be launched in a suicide attack on the fleet. The Japanese had 58 more airfields in Korea, western Honshu and Shikoku, which also were to be used for massive suicide attacks. Allied intelligence had established that the Japanese had no more than 2, aircraft of which they guessed would be deployed in suicide attacks.
In Augusthowever, unknown to Allied intelligence, the Japanese still had 5, army and 7, Locked Up - Various - Westwood The Invasion aircraft, for a total of 12, planes of all types.
Every village had some type of aircraft manufacturing activity. Hidden in mines, railway tunnels, under viaducts and in basements of department stores, work was being done to construct new planes. Additionally, the Japanese were building newer and more effective models of the Okka, a rocket-propelled bomb much like the German V-1, but flown by a suicide pilot. When the invasion became imminent, Ketsu-Go called for a fourfold aerial plan of attack to destroy up to Allied ships.
While Allied ships were approaching Japan, but still in the open seas, an initial force of 2, army and navy fighters were to fight to the death to control the skies over Kyushu.
A second force of navy combat pilots were to attack the main body of the task force to keep it from using its fire support and air cover to protect the troop carrying transports. While these two forces were engaged, a third force of suicide planes was to hit the American transports.
As the invasion convoys approached their anchorages, another 2, suicide planes were to be launched in waves of toto be used in hour by hour attacks. By mid-morning of the first day of the invasion, most of the American land-based aircraft would be forced to return to their bases, leaving the defense against the suicide planes to the carrier pilots and the shipboard gunners.
Carrier pilots crippled by fatigue would have to land time and time again to rearm and refuel. Guns would malfunction from the heat of continuous firing and ammunition would become scarce.
Gun crews would be exhausted by nightfall, but still the waves of kamikaze would continue. With Locked Up - Various - Westwood The Invasion fleet hovering Japanese planned to coordinate their air strikes Man On Da Wax - DJ Rip & DJ Work!
- House Blend Volume 5 -Tasters Choice- attacks from the 40 remaining submarines from the Imperial off the beaches, all remaining Japanese aircraft would be committed to Good And Ready - Ted Nugent - Nugent suicide attacks, which the Japanese. With regard to the 12, Japanese aircraft available to strike our Army and Navy forces. I would like to tell you of my first hand encounter with the so called strike force.
The only problem they were only fuselages, not a single engine anywhere to be found Upon concentrated investigation it was determined Japan was unable to produce the raw materials to build any engines. Interesting, they had thousands of airplanes that couldn't fly.
Fred Waterhouse Editor's not: Fred was a Counter Intelligence Corps agent who had a specialty background in investigating aircraft accidents for sabotage, etc. An interesting comment! The Imperial Navy had 23 destroyers and two cruisers which were operational. These ships were to be used to counterattack the American invasion.
A number of the destroyers were to be beached at the last minute to be used as anti-invasion gun platforms. Once offshore, the invasion fleet would be forced to defend not only against the attacks from the air, but would also be confronted with suicide attacks from sea.
Japan had established a suicide naval attack unit of midget submarines, human torpedoes and exploding motorboats. The goal of the Japanese was to shatter the invasion before the landing. The Japanese were convinced the Americans would back off or become so demoralized that they would then accept a less-than-unconditional surrender and a more honorable Philip Glass - Atlanta Symphony Orchestra And Chorus* · Robert Shaw - Itaipu / The Canyon face-saving end for the Japanese.
See Trinity for more on this! But as horrible as the battle of Japan would be off the beaches, it would be on Japanese soil that Locked Up - Various - Westwood The Invasion American forces would face the most rugged and fanatical defense encountered during the war.
Throughout the island-hopping Pacific campaign, Allied troops had always out numbered the Japanese by 2 to 1 and sometimes 3 to 1. In Japan it would be different. By virtue of a combination Locked Up - Various - Westwood The Invasion cunning, guesswork, and brilliant military reasoning, a number of Japan's top military leaders were able to deduce, not only when, but where, the United States would land its first invasion forces.
Facing the 14 American divisions landing at Kyushu would be 14 Japanese divisions, 7 independent mixed brigades, 3 tank brigades and thousands of naval troops. On Kyushu the odds would be 3 to 2 in favor of the Japanese, withenemy defenders againstAmericans. This time the bulk of the Japanese defenders would not be the poorly trained and ill-equipped labor battalions that the Americans had faced in the earlier campaigns.
Japan's network of beach defenses consisted of offshore mines, thousands of suicide scuba divers attacking landing craft, and mines Locked Up - Various - Westwood The Invasion on the beaches.
Coming ashore, the American Eastern amphibious assault forces at Miyazaki would face three Japanese divisions, and two others poised for counterattack. Awaiting the Never Say Never Again - Bee Gees - Greatest Hits attack force at Ariake Bay was an entire division and at least one mixed infantry brigade. On the western shores of Kyushu, Locked Up - Various - Westwood The Invasion Marines would face the most brutal opposition.
Along the invasion beaches would be the three Japanese divisionsa tank brigade, a mixed infantry brigade and an artillery command. Components of two divisions would also be poised to launch counterattacks.
If not needed to reinforce the primary landing beaches, the American Reserve Force would be landed at the base of Kagoshima Bay November 4, where they would be confronted by two mixed infantry brigades, parts of two infantry divisions and thousands of naval troops.
All along the invasion beaches, American troops would face coastal batteries, anti-landing obstacles and a network of heavily fortified pillboxes, bunkers, and underground fortresses. As Americans waded ashore, they would face intense artillery and mortar fire as they worked their way through concrete rubble and barbed-wire entanglements arranged to funnel them into the muzzles The Ray Of Cry - Cemetery Of Scream - Prelude To A Sentimental Journey these Japanese guns.
Beyond the beaches were large artillery pieces situated to bring down a curtain of fire on the beach. Some of these large guns were mounted on railroad tracks running in and out of caves protected by concrete and steel. In the mountains behind the Japanese beaches were underground networks of caves, bunkers, command posts and hospitals connected by miles of tunnels with dozens of entrances and exits.
Some of these complexes could hold up to 1, troops. In addition to the use of poison gas and bacteriological warfare which the Japanese had experimented withJapan mobilized its citizenry. Had Olympic come about, the Japanese civilian population, inflamed by a national slogan - "One Hundred Million Will Die for the Emperor and Nation" - were prepared to fight to the death.
Twenty Eight Million Japanese. At the early stage of the invasion, 1, Japanese and American soldiers would be dying every hour. The invasion of Japan never became a reality because on August 6,an atomic bomb was exploded over Hiroshima. Three days later, a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. Within days the war with Japan was at a close. Had these bombs not been dropped and had the invasion been launched as scheduled, combat casualties in Japan would have been at a minimum of the tens of thousands.
Every foot of Japanese soil would have been paid for by Japanese and American lives. One can only guess at how many civilians would have committed suicide in their homes or in futile mass military attacks. In retrospect, the 1 million American men who were to be the casualties of the invasion, were instead lucky enough to survive the war. Intelligence studies and military estimates made 50 years ago, and not latter-day speculation, clearly indicate that the battle for Japan might well have resulted in the biggest blood-bath in the history of modern warfare.
Far worse would be what might have happened to Japan as a nation and as a culture. When the invasion came, it would have come after several months of fire bombing all of the remaining Japanese cities. The cost in human life that resulted from the two atomic blasts would be small in comparison to the total number of Japanese lives that would have been lost by this aerial devastation.
The aircraft carriers, cruisers and transport ships scheduled to carry the invasion troops to Japan, ferried home American troops in a gigantic operation called Magic Carpet.
In the fall ofin the aftermath of the war, few people concerned themselves with the invasion plans. Following the surrender, the classified documents, maps, diagrams and appendices for Operation Downfall were Locked Up - Various - Westwood The Invasion away in boxes and eventually stored at the National Archives. These plans that called for the invasion of Japan paint a vivid description of what might have been one of the most horrible campaigns in the history of man.
The fact that the story of the invasion of Japan is locked up in the National Archives and is not told in our history books is something for which all Americans can be Sais-tu que je taime depuis longtemps - Stéphane Venne - Stéphane Venne en 10 chansons (Orchestral). We had a brand new CF tail number It was different from the rest of Locked Up - Various - Westwood The Invasion C line in that it was equipped with Hamilton Hydromatic props whereas the others had Curtis electrics.
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