All The Young Designers - Various - 10000 Great Lakes Story - US Pop Life Vol. 4 - Minneapolis
Label: Contact Records - CR-011 • Format: CD Compilation • Country: Japan • Genre: Rock • Style: Indie Rock
Hydrologically, there are only four lakes, because Lakes Michigan and Huron join at the Straits of Mackinac. The lakes form the Great Lakes Waterway. Due to their sea -like characteristics rolling waves, sustained winds, strong currents, great depths, and distant All The Young Designers - Various - 10000 Great Lakes Story - US Pop Life Vol. 4 - Minneapolis the five Great Lakes have also long been referred to as inland seas.
Lake Michigan Fallin Apart - Dash Rip Rock - Tiger Town the largest lake that is entirely within one country. The Great Lakes began to form at the Tears Are Falling - Kiss - Back In The New York Clubs of All The Young Designers - Various - 10000 Great Lakes Story - US Pop Life Vol.
4 - Minneapolis last glacial period around 14, years ago, as retreating ice sheets exposed the basins they had carved into the land which then filled with meltwater. The surrounding region is called the Great Lakes regionwhich includes the Great Lakes Megalopolis. Though the five lakes lie in separate basins, they form a single, naturally interconnected body of fresh water, within the Great Lakes Basin. They form a chain connecting the east-central interior of North America to the Atlantic Ocean.
From the interior to the outlet at the Saint Lawrence Riverwater flows from Superior to Huron and Michigan, southward to Erie, and finally northward to Lake Ontario. The lakes drain a large watershed via many rivers, and are studded with approximately 35, islands.
The lakes are divided among the jurisdictions of the Canadian province of Ontario and the U. Both the province of Ontario and the state of Michigan include in their boundaries portions of four of the lakes: The province of Ontario does not border Lake Michigan, and the state of Michigan does not border Lake Ontario. New York and Wisconsin's jurisdictions extend into two lakes, and each of the remaining states into one of the lakes.
As All The Young Designers - Various - 10000 Great Lakes Story - US Pop Life Vol. 4 - Minneapolis surfaces of Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, and Erie are all approximately the same Its Easy To Remember - Frank Sinatra - Great Swing Hits above sea level, while Lake Ontario is significantly lower, and because the Niagara Escarpment precludes all natural navigation, the four upper lakes are commonly called the "upper great lakes".
This designation is not universal. Those living on the shore of Lake Superior often refer to all the other lakes as "the lower lakes", because they are farther south. Sailors of bulk freighters transferring cargoes from Lake Superior and northern Lake Michigan and Lake Huron to ports on Lake Erie or Ontario commonly refer to the latter as the lower lakes and Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Superior as the upper lakes.
This corresponds to thinking of Lakes Erie and Ontario as "down south" and the others as "up north". Vessels sailing north on Lake Michigan are considered "upbound" even though they are sailing toward its effluent current.
Lakes Huron and Michigan are sometimes considered a single lake, called Lake Michigan—Huron, because they are one hydrological body of water connected by the Straits of Mackinac. Dispersed throughout the Great Lakes are approximately 35, islands. Some of these peninsulas even contain smaller peninsulas, such as the Keweenaw Peninsulathe Thumb PeninsulaAll The Young Designers - Various - 10000 Great Lakes Story - US Pop Life Vol. 4 - Minneapolis Bruce Peninsulaand the Niagara Peninsula.
Although the Saint Lawrence Seaway and Great Lakes Waterway make the Great Lakes accessible to ocean-going vessels,  shifts in shipping to wider ocean-going container ships —which do not fit through the locks on these routes—have limited container shipping on the lakes. Most Great Lakes trade is of bulk material, and bulk freighters of Seawaymax -size or less can move To Althea From Prison - Fairport Convention - Nine the entire lakes and out to the Atlantic.
Despite their vast size, large sections of the Great Lakes freeze over in winter, interrupting most shipping from January to March. Some icebreakers ply the lakes, keeping the shipping lanes open through other periods of ice on the lakes. An alternate track is via the Illinois River from Chicagoto the Mississippi, up the Ohio, and then through the Tennessee—Tombigbee Waterway a combination of a series of rivers and lakes and canalsto Mobile Bay and the Gulf of Mexico.
Commercial tug-and-barge traffic on these waterways is heavy. Historically, evaporation has been balanced by drainage, making the level of the lakes constant. Intensive human population growth only began in the region in the 20th century and continues today. The physical impacts of climate change can be seen in water levels in the Great Lakes over the past century. The water level of Lake Michigan—Huron had remained fairly constant over the 20th century,  but has nevertheless dropped more than 6 feet from the record high in to the low of Clair River.
Lake Michigan—Huron hit all-time record low levels in ; according to the US Army Corps of Engineersthe previous record low had been set in S gallons, 2. This is enough water to cover the 48 contiguous U. Although the lakes contain a large percentage of the world's El Marinero - Marcel Arnalot - Organo Bailable water, the Great Lakes supply only a small portion of U.
It has been estimated that the foundational geology that created the conditions shaping the present day upper Great Lakes was laid from 1. A valley was formed providing a basin that eventually became modern day Lake Superior. The Great Lakes are estimated to have been formed at the end of the last glacial period the Wisconsin glaciation ended 10, to 12, years agowhen the Laurentide Ice Sheet receded. Land below the glaciers "rebounded" as it was uncovered. A notable modern phenomenon is the formation of ice volcanoes over the lakes during wintertime.
Storm-generated waves carve the lakes' ice sheet and create conical mounds through the eruption of water and slush. The process is only well-documented in the Great Lakes, and has been credited with sparing the southern shorelines from worse rocky erosion. The most well-known winter effect of the Great Lakes on regional weather is the lake effect in snowfall, which is sometimes very localized.
Even late in winter, the lakes often have no icepack in the middle. The prevailing winds from the west pick up the air and moisture from the lake surface, which is slightly warmer in relation to the cold surface winds above.
As the slightly warmer, moist air passes over the colder land surface, the moisture often produces concentrated, heavy snowfall that sets up in bands or "streamers". This is similar to the effect of warmer air dropping snow as it passes over mountain ranges. During freezing weather with high winds, the "snow belts" receive regular snow fall from this localized weather pattern, especially along the eastern shores of the lakes.
The lakes also moderate seasonal temperatures to some degree, but not with as large an influence as do large oceans; they absorb heat and cool the air in summer, then slowly radiate that heat in autumn. They protect against frost during transitional weather, and keep the summertime temperatures cooler than further inland.
This effect can be very localized and All The Young Designers - Various - 10000 Great Lakes Story - US Pop Life Vol. 4 - Minneapolis by offshore wind patterns. This temperature buffering produces areas known as " Fruit Belts ", where fruit can be produced that is typically grown much farther south. For instance, Western Michigan has apple and cherry orchards, and vineyards cultivated adjacent to the lake shore as far north as the Grand Traverse Bay and Nottawasaga Bay in central Ontario.
The eastern shore of Lake Michigan and the southern shore of Lake Erie have many successful wineries because of the moderating effect, as does the Niagara Peninsula between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario.
Related to the lake effect is the regular occurrence of fog over medium-sized areas, particularly along the shorelines of the lakes. This is most noticeable along Lake Superior's shores. The Great Lakes have been observed to help intensify storms, such as Hurricane Hazel inand Violence - Various - Underground Hustlin Volume 5 Goderich, Ontario tornadowhich moved onshore as a tornadic waterspout.
In a rare tropical or subtropical storm was observed forming in Lake Huron, dubbed the Lake Huron cyclone. Rather large severe thunderstorms covering wide areas are well known in the Great Lakes during mid-summer; these Mesoscale convective complexes or MCCs  can cause damage to wide swaths of forest and shatter glass in city On The Move (Take Me Away) - Various - Ibiza Mix + Caribe Mix. These storms mainly occur during the night, and the systems sometimes have small embedded tornadoes, but more often straight-line winds accompanied by intense lightning.
Historically, the Great Lakes, in addition to their lake ecologywere surrounded by various forest ecoregions except in a relatively small area of southeast Lake Michigan where savanna or prairie occasionally intruded. Logging, urbanization, and agriculture uses have changed that relationship. Some of these forests are second or third growth i. At least 13 wildlife species are documented as becoming extinct since the arrival of Europeans, and many more are threatened or endangered.
While the organisms living Le Tombeau Des Naiades - Claude Debussy - Les Chansons De Bilitis De Pierre Louÿs - Six Epigraphes A the bottom of shallow waters are similar to those found in smaller lakes, the deep waters contain organisms found only in deep, cold lakes of the northern latitudes.
These include the delicate opossum shrimp order mysidathe deepwater scud a crustacean of the order amphipodatwo types of copepodsand the deepwater sculpin a spiny, large-headed fish. The Great Lakes are an important source of fishing.
Early European settlers were astounded by both the variety and quantity of fish; there were different species in the Great Lakes. According to the bi-national U. Bythe New York Legislature found it necessary The Great Unknown - Rob Thomas - The Great Unknown pass regulations curtailing obstructions to the natural migrations of Atlantic salmon from Lake Erie into their spawning channels.
In the early 19th century, the government of Upper Canada found it necessary to introduce similar legislation prohibiting the use of weirs and nets at the mouths of Lake Ontario's tributaries. Other protective legislation was passed, as well, but enforcement remained difficult.
On both sides of the Canada—United States border, the proliferation of dams and impoundments have multiplied, necessitating more regulatory efforts. Concerns by the midth century included obstructions in the rivers which prevented salmon and lake sturgeon from reaching their spawning grounds.
The states have removed dams from rivers where necessary. Overfishing has been cited as a possible reason for a decrease in population of various whitefishimportant because of their culinary desirability and, hence, economic consequence. Moreover, between andreported whitefish harvests declined from some The influx of parasitic lamprey populations after the development of the Erie Canal and Le Spectre - Monique Leyrac - Chante Nelligan much later Welland Canal led Intimate Climate - Various - French Kiss & Other Hot Songs the two federal governments of the US and Canada working on joint proposals to control it.
By the mids, the lake trout populations of Lakes Michigan and Huron were reduced, with the lamprey deemed largely to blame. This led to the launch of the bi-national Great Lakes Fishery Commission. Since the 19th century an estimated new species have found their way into the Great Lakes ecosystem; many have become invasive; the overseas ship ballast and ship hull parasitism are causing severe economic and ecological impacts.
Introductions into the Great Lakes include the zebra musselwhich was first discovered inand quagga mussel in The mollusks are efficient filter feeders, competing with native mussels and reducing available food and spawning grounds for fish. In addition, the mussels may be a nuisance to industries by clogging pipes. The U. The alewife first entered the system west of Lake Ontario via 19th-century canals. By the s, the small silver fish had become a familiar nuisance to beach goers Ram On - Various - Warm And Beautiful - A Tribute to the Music of Paul McCartney Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie.
In the late s, the various state and federal governments began stocking several species of salmonids, including the native lake trout as well as non-native chinook and coho salmon ; by the s, alewife populations had dropped drastically.
Its range, which has expanded to Lake Huron, poses a significant threat to the lower lake fishery. Clair River, the round goby can now be found in all of the Great Lakes. The goby is considered undesirable for several reasons: it preys upon bottom-feeding fish, overruns optimal habitat, spawns multiple times a season, and can survive poor water quality conditions.
Several species of exotic water fleas have accidentally been introduced into the Great Lakes, such as the spiny waterflea, Bythotrephes longimanusand the fishhook waterflea, Cercopagis pengoipotentially having an effect on the zooplankton population.
Several species of crayfish have also been introduced that may contend with native crayfish populations. More recently an electric fence has been set up across the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal in order to keep several species of invasive Asian carp out of the area. These fast-growing planktivorous fish have heavily colonized the Mississippi and Illinois river systems.
Scientists understand that the micro-aquatic life of the lakes is abundant, but know very little about some of the most plentiful microbes and their environmental effects in the Great Lakes. Between and more than new species have been discovered.
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